Developed the idea of crop rotation with 3 fields, and one with turnips
his Travels During 1787, 1788, and 1789; he observed the French agricultural system and illustrated the weaknesses of the French agricultural system- nobles did not develop land, which became wasted
When Rich landowners allowed the poor to work on their land if they gave them some of the profit, the method of producing a steady food supply that does not grow.
English inventor of the spinning jenny (1720-1778)
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
the act of enclosing something inside something else
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
An English maker of pottery and china, he developed the pyrometer (measures temperature in kilns) and was able to produce inexpensive china. He is also noted for introducing mechanization to the porcelain industry.
a flight must start and end within the borders of the same country.
The medieval idea that prices should be fair, protecting both consumers and producers. Government makes decrees if necessary.
an early spinning machine with multiple spindles
1780's; Richard Arkwright; powered by horse or water; turned out yarn much faster than cottage spinning wheels, led to development of mechanized looms
a poor densely populated city district occupied by a minority ethnic group linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions
Successful Sephardic Jews who gave services to higher officials.
In 1784 in Germany, there was an onset of a new age of German literature. In a book, Ideas on Philosophy of History of Mankind this German, protestant pastor and theologian expressed some of the new beliefs. He thought the French frivolous and believed that true culture must spring from native roots and from the volt/ people. Importance of national character was stressed - the volksgeist. Thought all peoples should develop own genius in their own way.
a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
Idea created by J.G. Herder to identify the national character of Germany, but soon passed to other countries.
Germany in its Deep humiliation
Claimed that German culture was distinctly different from French culture, and that German culture was superior. Superiority. Said Germans should assume their rightful place as the leaders of Europe.
Addresses to the German Nation
A speech given by Johann Gottlieb Fichte, this called for a younger generations of Germans to recognize the national duty that historical circumstances had placed on their shoulders.
Sturm and Drang
'Storm and Stress' was a movement in German literature and music. Extreme emotions were freely expressed, such as greed, revenge, love and hate.
This man's work was extremely influential for the Romantic Movement
the boy whose upbringing was described by Jean-Jacques Rousseau
influential German idealist philosopher (1724-1804)
Refers to an inner command to act in every situation as one would have all other people always act in the same situation.
German philosopher who advocated intuition over reason (1744-1803)
Madame de Staele
French poet and novelist and dramatist
visionary British poet and painter (1757-1827)
English romantic poet (1772-1834)
a romantic English poet whose work was inspired by the Lake District where he spent most of his life (1770-1850)
This English poet joined the Greeks and died fighting so that they may be free
German poet and novelist and dramatist who lived in Weimar (1749-1832)
the religious beliefs and practices of Methodists characterized by concern with social welfare and public morals
English clergyman and founder of Methodism (1703-1791)
German philosopher whose three stage process of dialectical reasoning was adopted by Karl Marx (1770-1831)
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
Congress of Vienna
conservative, reactionary meeting, led by Prince Metternich, restore Europe to Prerevolution time
status belonging to states strong enough to protect their borders and achieve citizen loyalty
Italian nationalist whose writings spurred the movement for a unified and independent Italy (1805-1872)
a person who favors an economic theory of laissez-faire and self-regulating markets
Austrian statesman (1773-1859)
students protesting to unite germany
Issued by Metternich, required 39 independent German states, including Prussia and Austria, to root out subversive ideas. (censorship) Also established permanent comittee with spies to punish any liberal or radical organization.
These laws forbade the importation of foreign grain without the prices in England rising substantially
These were the laws passed by the Parliament that prohibited the English people from forming a union
In 1819, during a public meeting in St. Peter's Fields (Manchester, England), calvary charged into the crowd, killing 11. The purpose of the meeting was to protest the Corn Laws.
placed controls on a heavily taxed press and practically eliminated all mass meetings
(1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the Revoltion. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate).
name of the constitution of Louis XVIII which provided for a monarchy and bicameral legislature
Concert of Europe
Alliances devised by prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent outbreak of revolutions.
Spanish Revolution of 1820
Spanish revolution was a revolution against King Bourbon Ferdinand VII of Spain. When he had been put into power, he pledged to abide by the Cortes, but once he gained power, he abolished the constitution and ruled alone. Officers, who were about to be sent to the new world from Spain, revolted, and the king agreed to again rule under constitution. Another similar revolt happened in Naples, and the king there agreed also to rule under a constitution. These worried Metternich and the Holy Alliance stepped into Naples and put the King of the Two Sicilies in absolute power again. There was enough support from the alliance to put French troops in Spain to help Ferdinand and they stayed there until 1827. However, the powers used the revolt as a distraction to gain commerce in the Spanish colonies, particularly with Britain, whose new foreign minister, Canning, attempted to break Spain's monopoly on the colonies and take them for Britain.
Greek Revolution of 1821
revolt attract liberals - want Greek demo. Br. Fr. Rus - 1827 - Treaty of London - support revolt. 2nd one assure independence. Otto I = king. 1828 Rus send troops, got terr. with Treaty of Adrianpre and the 3 decide Greek, no Otto.
revolutionary that freed Chile, Argentina and Peru
Venezuelan statesman who led the revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule
place in Russia on December 14 1825, Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession.
czar of Russia from 1825 to 1855 who led Russia into the Crimean War (1796-1855)
set out to restore the absolute monarchy with the help of the ultraroyalists. Tried to repay nobles for lands lost during the revolution, but the liberals in teh legislative assemly opposed him. Eventually, he issued the July Ordinances.
Revolution of 1830
This was a socialist uprising in France that was put down by the government, and happened the same year the Borboun monarchy was replaced with Louis Phillipe.
Promised France an end to experiments in absolution.
King of France following Charles X. Abdicated the throne against threat of republican revolution (smelled his popularity was diminishing)
Great Reform Bill
Slightly expanded electorate and reduced rotten boroughs. Shows that gradual political reform is possible
Catholic Emancipation act
Of 1829. One of the ToryReforms. Extended the right ot vote to Roman Catholics. Could also hold Public Office henceforth. Repeal of Test Act was the year before in 1828. Non-conformists (Puritans) also no longer barred.
Rural town in England that sent members to Parliament despite having few or no voters
most notable romantic painter-fascinated by nature-gentle Wordsworthian landscapes in which human beings were at one with their environment, the comforting countryside of unspoiled rural England