What diagnosis is 1st considered before diagnosing separation anxiety disorder?
Panic disorder with agoraphobia.
What are some indicators for antisocial personality disorder?
Deliberate destruction of others' property, lying and physical assault (behaviors manifested by age 15).
What is delirium?
A disturbance in the level of consciousness with concomitant changes in cognition.
RE: Mental Retardation, describe the degrees of severity where IQ is concerned.
>25 = profound
What are three different types of ADHD?
Combined, predominantly inattentive, and predominantly hyperactive impulsive type.
Describe motor skills disorder.
Listed as developmental coordination disorder in the DSM. Characterized by significant impairment in motor coordination needed to perform daily activities. Not the result of a medical condition or pervasive developmental disorder.
What is Asperger's Disorder distinguished by?
impairment in social interaction that is both severe and sustained. nonfunctional repetitive and sterotypical behaviors, interests and activities in the absence of a significant delay of language, cognitive abilities, and the development of self-help skills. More common in males.
What is Rett's disorder and is there a cure?
A pervasive developmental disorder. A number of deficits will develop including decelerated head growth, loss in hand skills, at least a temporary loss in social engagement, gait and trunk movement, and severe psychomotor retardation. Only in females. No cure.
What are the 2 types of Reactive Attachment disorder of Infancy or early childhood?
Inhibited type (characterized by a failure to initiate and to respond to social interaction in a manner consistent with individuals developmental level). Disinhibited type (characterized by indiscriminate sociability). Onset must be before age 5.
What is the difference between Bipolar 1 and Bipolar 2?
1= a minimum of 1 manic or mixed episode and usually has major depressive episodes.
2= (2nd degree bi-polar) a minimum of 1 major depressive episode and 1 hypomanic episode (not manic symptoms)
Which personality disorders are in cluster 'A?'
Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal.
Which personality disorders fall under cluster 'B?'
Antisocial (no conformity to social norms), Borderline
(more common in females, use DBT), narcissistic (more common in males), and Histrionic (emotionally needy- think Scarlett Ohara)
Which personality disorders correlate with cluster 'C?'
Avoidant (timid, perception of inferiority to others), Dependent (more common in females/clingy), Obsessive Compulsive (perfectionism, rigidity, more common in males), and NOS.
Re: substance abuse, describe early full remission:
no criteria for dependence or abuse has been met and the client has been abstaining between 1 and 11 months.
Re: substance abuse, describe sustained partial remission:
full criteria for dependence have not been met for 12 or more months and that 1 criterion for abuse or dependence has been met.
Re substance abuse: describe early partial remission:
1 or more criteria for the abuse or dependence has been met, and that the client has been abstaining between 1 month and 12 months.
Re substance abuse, describe sustained full remission:
None of the criteria for the abuse or dependence has been met for 12 months or longer.
Name 5 Atypical Antipsychotics:
Clorazil, Risperdal, Zyprexa, Abilify, and Seroquel.
Name 5 mood stabilizers:
Zyprexa, lithium, depakote, geodon, symbax.
If someone has Aspergers, and they struggle with hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity, which medication might be prescribed?
psychostimulants, clonidine, tricyclic antidepressants or strattera. SSRI's: for compulsions, obsessions, and/or ritualistic behavior.
What are 3 psychostimulants?
Ritalin, dexedrine, and adderall. (curb hyperactivity, impulsivity, attention, and learning). For ADHD, strattera is a nonstimulant for folks who don't like psychostimulants.
What medications might be useful in treating sterotypic movement disorder?
Antidepressants: prozac, zoloft, luvox (SSRI's), or Anafranil (a tricyclic antidepressant).
What are some antidepressants approved by the FDA to treat OCD?
Anafranil (clomipramine), Luvox, Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft.
What medications could be helpful in blocking panic attacks?
Imipramine and MAO inhibitors.
Name 6 SSRI's
Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, Celexa, Lexapro, Luvox.
Name 4 SSNRI's
Effexor, Wellbutrin, Deyrrel, and Cymbalta
What does phenothiazines describe?
The largest of the 5 main classes of neuroleptic antipsychotic drugs.
Name 5 psychostimulants.
(TX for ADHD, narcolepsy, obesity) Ritalin, Dexedrine, Adderall, Concerta, Strattera (esp. ADHD).
What medications might be used to decrease Tics?
Antipsychotic medications, and anti-hypertensive agents.
In an autistic child, what would be prescribed to treat irritability?
Name 2 benzodiazepines:
Name 4 MAO inhibitors:
Nardil, Parnate, Marplan, Emsam
Somatization disorder (AKA Briquet's syndrome) is characterized by the presence of a HX of all of the following:
Pain in @ least 4 different parts of the body or body functions, At least 2 non-pain gastrointestinal symptoms, at least 1 sexual or reproductive oriented symptom, at least 1 non-pain pseudoneurological symptom; not fully the result of a med. condition or substance. (onset before age 30).
Panic disorder with agoraphbia has both recurrent unexpected panic attacks and at least one of the attacks has been followed by 1 month (or more) of one (or more) of the following:
persistent concern about having additional attacks, worry about the implications of the attack or its consequences, a significant change in behavior related to the attack.
Re: dementia, what meds may improve mental function, mood, and behavior?
Aricept, reminyl, exelon, namenda.
What are the 3 levels that memory is assessed on?
immediate recall (repeating words), short term (recalling 3 items after a small time delay), and long term (recollection of historical or geographical facts).
Schizoid personality disorder?
a restricted range of emotions and detachment from others characterize this.
Describe the prodromal phase of schizophrenia.
Characterized by a decline in role functioning and precedes the active phase.
Describe the active phase of schizophrenia.
Distinguished by full blown symptoms of schizophrenia.
Residual type Schizophrenia?
Minimum of 1 episode of schizophrenia and demonstrates impairment but in the absence of prominent psychotic features.
Describe the paranoid type of schizophrenia:
delusions of persecution or grandiosity, and auditory hallucinations.
Describe the disorganized type of schizophrenia
disorganized speech and behavior and flat/inappropriate affect.
Describe the catatonic type of schizophrenia:
must be minimum of 2 symptoms: immobility, purposeless movements, negativism, posturing, or echolalia.
Undifferentiated type of schizophrenia?
Does not meet criteria for the other subtypes but it does have at least 2 of the characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia (delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, negative symptoms).
How is schizophreniform disorder different from schizophrenia?
Individual may or may not experience impairment in social or occupational functioning. Individual should have symptoms of the disorder a minimum of one month and less than 6 months.
A major depressive manic or mixed episode in combination with symptoms of schizophrenia. The person must have had delusions or hallucinations during a 2 week period when prominent mood symptoms were not present; mood symptoms need to be a prominent part of the illness.
Name 8 components of a social HX:
Identification of presenting problem, gathering data via interviewing and observation, records, assessment instruments, collateral contacts, suicide risk, standardized testing, mental status examination.
What are 7 areas that a client's self-report should focus on?
problem areas, strengths, support system, attitude, motivation, use of resources, danger to self or others.
What are 3 elements of a client's situation to consider regarding the biopsychosocial model of assessment?
The biological component (of how the body's functioning may be contributing to client's current problem), the psychological component (or the emotions, the thinking processes, and the behaviors of the client), and the social component (or the role of the environment, culture, socioeconomic status, poverty and spirituality in the individual's health.
Medical conditions should be coded on which axis?
The primary TX used for Separation Anxiety Disorder is:
Before diagnosing Reactive Attachment Disorder __________________ has to be ruled out:
Pervasive developmental disorder.
What goes on Axis 1?
Clinical disorders, V codes (and other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention).
Personality disorder, V Codes, mental retardation, borderline intellectual functioning.
Describe what goes on Axis 4 and 5?
4: psychosocial and environmental problems.
5: GAF (global assessment of functioning)- clinician's judgment of individual's overall level of functioning.
What is pseudocyesis?
The false belief that one is pregnant.
What do SOAP and BIRP stand for?
Subjective, objective, assessment, and plan. Behavior, Intervention, Response and Plan.
Navane commonly treats what?
MAO's are used in the treatment of:
Depression and Parkinson's.
one's thoughts being withdrawn from one's mind
others are putting thoughts into one's mind.
one's thoughts are broadcast or heard by others.
Describe the diagnosis of malingering:
A person who fakes being emotionally or physically ill to avoid being held responsible for his inappropriate behavior.
Term used to refer to impairment in language related to individuals experiencing alzheimers.
emotional cleansing/purging of emotions.
To diagnose Tourette's, how often must Tic occur?
multiple times per day almost every day for more than 12 months.
Re: conduct disorder, if the onset is before age 10, what is it called?
childhood onset type.
How long to symptoms (in an adolescent) have to be present to diagnose cyclothymic disorder?
Name the 4 areas that communication disorders are identified under in the DSM-IV.
Phonological, Stuttering, Mixed receptive expressive, and expressive language.
Relational problems should be listed where (re: diagnosis).
What is the most common treatment approach to deal with enuresis?
What are the 4 groups the DSM divides sleep disorders into?
Primary, sleep disorder related to another mental disorder, sleep disorder due to a general medical condition, substance induced sleep disorder.
What is motor skills disorder listed as in the DSM?
Developmental coordination disorder (characterized by significant impairment in motor coordination).
Re: cognition. executive functioning can be screened by asking about similarities, give an example:
What do a ball and an orange have in common?
Continued use of a substance in spite of significantly distressful cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms. Tolerance, withdrawal, and compulsive drug use often result.
One component of adaptation is accommodation, give an example.
Modifying current thought structure to incorporate a new, perceived feature of the environment (if 'bounce and drool' schema doesn't work, come up with a new one).
Give an example of assimilation.
Infants grab their favorite rattle (a schema) and thrust it in their mouths, then find mommy's water bottle, and they can seamlessly transfer their 'grab and thrust' schema to the new object.
What does assimilation refer to?
The incorporation of aspects of one's environment into an existing thought structure.
4 substages of separation/individuation phase (Mahler)
Differentiation from mother/hatching, practicing: infant's increasing motor skills, rapprochement (efforts @ autonomous function- toddler's run away/come back, etc.), and consolidation and object constancy/achievement of individuality (children become more comfortable separating from their mothers b/c internal representations assure them that mom will come back).
C Gilligan criticized Kohlberg's theory for:
failing to understand the importance of interpersonal relationships in moral development.
What are two aspects of the superego?
The conscience (should not's), and the ego ideal (positive, moral teachings).
According to psychodynamic theory, the principal way that children become moral is:
by identifying with the same sex parent.
A preoccupation with getting and using drug of choice is one of the significant indicators of probable:
The Piagetian stage characterized by the ability to develop goal-directed behavior, means-end thinking and object permanence.
Children begin to develop symbols to represent events or objects in the world during the _______________ substage of the sensorimotor stage.
early representational thought.
Psychoanalytic writer. Saw the internal world of the child focused more on relationships with others than on instincts and drives (looked at child's relationship with mother).
The process by which the ego directs the individual to express sexual and aggressive impulses in socially acceptable ways.
Psychoanalytic theorists say that guilt develops when a child:
Turns hostility inward following withdrawal of parental love.
Which critical skills result from the interaction of the needs of the id, the maturing physical systems of the individual, and the growth of the ego's awareness of the realities of the real world?
Perceiving, analyzing, acting, and remembering.
What does the ego give a person the power to do?
Go beyond being able to keep an image of a need-gratifying object in the mind to actually getting needs met.
What does ego strength mean?
How effectively the ego copes with the clashing influence of the id and the superego.
Kohlberg argues that the distinctions between the 3 levels of moral reasoning have to do with:
the degree of internalization.
What is symbiotic psychosis?
A severe mental disorder characterized by derangement of personality and loss of contact with reality which causes deterioration of normal social functioning.
Mahler's principle concern was with:
the psychological birth of the child.
Describe an example of operant conditioning:
Reinforcing a behavior so it will be repeated and withholding reinforcement so a behavior will not be repeated,
How can something intended as a punisher actually function as a reinforcer?
if the frequency of the behavior that was being punished increases.
an operant conditioning method that takes an action or tendency and shifts it, one approximation (or step) at a time towards the final behavioral goal of building a behavior by dividing it into small steps, then teaching one step at a time.
What does adaptation refer to?
Changing behavior in adjustment to new cultural surroundings.
Adopting a behavior that is the antithesis of the instinctual urge.
development of a pattern of substance use that is maladaptive (results in inability to fulfill responsibilities, use of substance in dangerous contexts, legal problems, negative impact on life). (DEPENDENCE requires tolerance and withdrawal).
A schema is a:
category of knowledge that allows us to interpret and understand the world.
What are the 3 stages of Mahler's developmental theory?
1 Normal Autism (birth -2 months)
2 Symbiosis- attachment of infant to mother (1-4 months).
3 Separation individuation (individuation refers to development of infant's ego) 4-8 months- 36 months.
Dr Elaine Congress created the culturagram. What ten areas does it examine?
reasons for relocation, legal status, time in community, language spoken @ home and in the community, health beliefs, crisis events, holidays and special events, contact with cultural and religious institutions, values about education and work, values about family including structure, power, etc.
Attachment theory. Identified the characteristics of a child's attachment to his/her caregiver and the phases that a child experiences when separated from the caregiver.
Who developed a model detailing experiential learning styles?
David Kolb (doing, watching, feeling, thinking).
What are the 4 characteristics of attachment according to Bowlby?
proximity maintenance (child's desire to be near the parent).
safe haven (describes the action of child drawing closer to parent when there's a perceived fear of threat).
secure base (parent represents security from which the child can safely explore surrounding environment)
separation distress (characterizes anxiety that occurs when child is separated from parent).
Adolescents moral performance is influenced by:
Name Erikson's 8 stages.
Trust vs. mistrust
autonomy vs. shame and doubt.
initiative vs guilt
industry vs inferiority
identity vs identity diffusion
intimacy vs isolation
generativity vs self-absorption
integrity vs despair
transformation of anxiety into a physical dysfunction- such as paralysis or blindness
The question, "with whom do you like to spend your time?' could be asked when assessing which characteristics of attachment (bowlby).
Child development, children's learning processes, use of language in learning.
James Karl and Karen Wandrei?
Person in Environment System Theory. They developed an assessment system that evaluates social, environmental, mental and physical health problems, and client strengths.
Isolation of affect?
Painful feelings are separated from the incident that triggered them initially (describing a rape w/no emotional response).
The attachment process is tied to oral satisfaction according to:
The ability to plan, organize, and remain in touch with reality is the portion of personality that Freudian theory would refer to as:
What is the most effective TX for depression?
What is Adler known for?
Individual psychology, importance of birth order, and self-image.
What are 4 phases in the cycle of abuse?
Tension building, incident, reconciliation, and calm.
What is Lewin known for?
Social psychology, organizational management, applied psychology. Three styles of leadership: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez faire.
Name (Whitsett and Yorks) 5 functions of management:
Planning organizing, staffing, leading, controlling.
What is the circular model of causality?
Refers to different subsystems that reciprocally impact each other.
What are the phases in the 'problem solving model?'
Contact (identification of problems and goals, contract, exploration), contract (assessment and evaluation, plan of action, and prognosis), and Action (implementation of TX plan, termination, evaluation).
A term used to describe a reduction in the quantity of thought:
Poverty of thought.
Rational Emotive Therapy?
Group orientation by which a positive and loving relationship between the SW and client is not important for reaching the goals of the individual.
What is the primary TX used for separation anxiety disorder?
Two required parts of DBT?
1 an individual component between therapist and client that is focused on skill-building.
2 weekly group therapy
Describe strategic family therapy?
Jay Haley (influenced by Milton Erickson). Useful with change-resistant families. Therapists utilize a directive role, use paradoxical directives (i.e. gives the family instructions to NOT comply with what would be the correct intervention). Ordeals (making client's symptoms too much trouble). Restraining (meet family's resistance to change with warnings of the dangers implicit in change), outpositioning, reframing.
What is the patient taught to do in Beck's cognitive therapy?
identify, evaluate, and change dysfunctional thoughts and beliefs.
Existential/Humanist movement/non-directive therapy.
Which 3 modes of cognitive experience did Harry Stack Sullivan (neo-Freudian) propose?
(founded interpersonal school of psychotherapy)
protaxic mode: 1st few months of life are related to a discreet series of momentary states.
parataxic mode: seeing casual connections between events that occur at about the same time but that are unrelated. he believed that maladaptive behavior is attributable to 'parataxic distortions' (misperceptions that involve responding to a person as though he or she is a significant person from the past) which are due to arrest in the parataxic mode.
syntaxic mode- employs logic and reasoning, allows for reflection.
What did Jung believe about personality and the focus of therapy?
personality consists of 2 attitudes (extroversion and introversion) and 4 basic functions (thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuiting). Focus of therapy is to rebridge the gap between the conscious and the personal and collective unconscious via interpretations, dream work, etc.
who's associated with autonomous ego functions, and what does it mean?
Heinz Hartman. Believed that the capacity for ego and id are present at birth. He thought the ego had its own independent source of energy and as developing independently of instinctual drives and internal conflicts.
Scientific management theories.
Good for assembly lines and other routine activities. Based on assumption that economic issues constitute the chief motivation of workers and that they behave in rational ways.
Bureaucratic Management Theory.
Max Weber: 'the bureaucracy as the organizational model with the greatest potential for efficiency and control.'
What is the most significant model for SW and clinical expertise?
Ego psychology in that it deals with mastering stages of development, emphasizes the development of coping behaviors and integrates psychological and social realms.
What are the 3 models of social group work, and who identified them?
Pappell and Rothman. 3 models = social goals, remedial, and reciprocal.
Name the 3 cognitive behavioral perspectives.
Cognitive therapy: Aaron Beck
Rational Emotive Therapy: Albert Ellis.
Self instruction/management: Donald Meichenbaum.
What are the 3 stages of the helping process?
1 Relationship building, exploration, engagement, assessment, and planning.
2. implementation and goal attainment
3. termination, planning, maintenance, strategies and evaluation.
Which requires more training: RET or cognitive restructuring?
RE: CBT, what is collaborative empiricism?
A method during which the client and social worker work in tandem to test the validity of the client's beliefs.
4 modules of DBT
mindfulness, interpersonal effectiveness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation.
what is systematic desensitization and who is it related to?
Joseph Wolpe. A counter-conditioning intervention frequently used in treating phobias that utilizes relaxation training, construction of the anxiety hierarchy and desensitization in imagination.
Name one of the 1st practitioners in casework to concentrate on assessment and diagnosis.
Mary Richmond (key developer of social casework), leader in charity organization societies movement.
Who was the founder of individual psychology?
Alfred Adler. Theories include (re: personality development)- human beings begin in a state of inadequacy or inferiority and have a basic drive toward self-actualization or superiority.
who uses the code?
Individuals, agencies, organizations, various bodies, and other professional groups.
What are the core values that the mission of the SW profession is rooted in?
service, social justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships, integrity, and competence.
Does cognitive restructuring involve attacking a person's irrational beliefs?
Fromm's 5 personality types.
unhealthy: receptive orientation, exploitative orientation, hoarding orientation, and marketing orientation. healthy: productive orientation.
Which 2 types of families did Fromm (a humanistic psychoanalyst) identify?
"unproductive" types of families: symbiotic= members and enmeshed and devoid of individual personalities. withdrawing= members exhibit indifference towards one another.
What are 6 techniques of structural family therapy?
(Salvador Minuchin) Joining (central to Minuchin's approach), evaluating family structure (mapping underlying structures of family), restructuring family (changing family structure via enactment), enactment (family acts out how they normally deal with specific types of problems), spontaneous behavior sequences (therapist highlights something and helps with modification), reframing (redefine family perspective on problems).
A pioneer who lobbied internationally for improved conditions and services for the mentally ill (created 32 institutions for the mentally ill).
Describe transactional analysis
Eric Berne. Teaches individuals to trust one another. Therapist =facilitator of growth and change. A structured analysis is completed of individual's ego states using an egogram. involves an examination of interactions between ego states of 2 individuals: social interactions are observable transactions, psychological transactions are covert. Concepts:
Ego states: the adult, the parent, the child.
life position: i.e. "I'm ok, You're OK."
life script: life plan
environmental conditions, recognitions.
3 phases of self-instruction?
1 SW and client make an assessment of client's self-statements and a conceptualization of the problem.
2 Client is instructed to imagine a difficult situation and to identify to the SW the concomitant self-statements.
3 Client and SW work together to develop self-statements that result in greater enjoyment of life.
What are the components of solution focused therapy?
Describing the problem, developing well-formulated goals, working collaboratively to identify solutions to problems, end of sessions feedback, evaluation of client progress.
What is stimulus generalization?
a term used to describe the process of transferring the learned response to one stimulus onto another similar stimulus.
What is the basic premise of CBT?
that our thoughts and beliefs control how we feel and behave.
List the 7 stages in the crisis intervention model (according to Roberts):
1conduct a thorough biopsychosocial and imminent danger assessment.
2 rapidly establish rapport with client
3 identify major problems or crisis precipitants.
4 deal with client's feelings and emotions.
5 generate and explore alternatives and new coping strategies.
6 restore functioning thru implementation of an action plan.
7 plan a follow up time to meet with client.
How would someone facilitating a group organize its members?
they would consciously organize members so that all participants have the opportunity to contribute to the attainment of group goals.
How can group therapy be beneficial for people with schizophrenia?
when it focuses on: real-life plans, problems, social and work roles, relationships, med compliance, and practical recreational or work activity.
Which theorist believed that self-determination was an important part of learning and emphasized observational learning, imitation, and modeling?
Would experimental TX be administered to a control group?
According to McClellands needs theory, individuals are motivated primarily by:
the need for power, affiliation, and achievement.
Name 3 types of Crises:
Situational (stressful event)
Maturational (developmentally-based crisis- i.e. starting school).
Crisis due to cultural values or societal factors (i.e. homosexuality in a heterosexually oriented society).
What are 7 questions that you might see a solution based therapist use? Who developed this model?
the 'miracle question,' exception finding q's, presuppositional q's, compliments, listening skills, empathy, scaling Q's. Insoo Kim Berg and Steve de Shazer.
Who is associated with Milan Systemic therapy?
Mara Selvini Palazzoli.
What is Johari Window?
A graphic model of interpersonal behavior that is useful in evaluating interaction and group effectiveness.
What did Karen Horney (neo-Freudian) believe about how children might seek to alleviate anxiety?
1 becoming compliant and moving towards people.
2 by becoming detached and moving away from people.
3 by becoming aggressive and moving against people.
Who came up with family systems theory, and how many interlocking concepts are related to it?
Murray Bowen, 8.
(Used to assist a patient suffering from PTSD by reliving the experience in a controlled environment). To relive an experience in order to purge it of its emotional excesses: a type of catharsis. Jung called it 'trauma therapy.'
what does the principle of equifinality mean?
re: communications/experimental therapy: the same results can be obtained via different means.
(Adler) how should psychoanalysis be? Name 4 ways:
2 have equal patient-therapist interaction
3 have engaged empathy as the goal in the therapeutic relationship
4 focus on the daily life experiences of the client.
What is psychoanalytical couples therapy?
(Fairbairn, Kohut, Gilligan) it analyzes couple relations and mate selection as originating from the parent-child relationship during child developmental states. attempts to uncover unresolved childhood conflicts with parental figures.
who developed critical incident stress management and what's its premise?
Jeffrey T. Mitchell. Most stress related symptoms are transitory with no long-term detrimental effects. it begins with on-scene defusing and includes a specific 7 phase small group crisis intervention process.
what does conflict theory state?
That society is held together through conflict rather than function (Karl Marx - - - - Max Weber)
Who founded Gestalt Therapy?
Fritz Perls (think empty chair).
How is task-centered TX different than behavioral therapy?
it's less directive and more collaborative.
object relations couples therapy?
model proposes that there is a complementary personality fit between couples that is unconscious and fulfills certain needs. The 'mothering figure' is the central motivation for selection and attachment of a mate.
What is object relations therapy?
It's a psychodynamic approach focused on early childhood experiences and relationships with significant others in childhood (esp. mother). Therapeutic process looks at the impact of unconscious fantasies and impulses. Therapy focuses on childhood relationships and experiences that influenced personality development.
With regards to communications/experiential family therapy, what does this therapy see as the primary purpose of symptoms.
The maintenance of homeostasis.
Which therapy is the most empirically tested of the family therapies?
Structural family therapy.
What are the 4 major boundary disturbances identified in Gestalt therapy?
introjection (someone may be overly compliant and they believe the external perception of the whole).
projection (disowning aspects of self by assigning them to other people).
retroflection (doing to one's self what one wants to do to others).
confluence (absence of a boundary between self and environment. [Gestalt = here and now]
describe the 5 stages of group development:
forming (preaffiliation, focuses on dependency and inclusion), storming (counterdependency and flight, focuses on issues around power and control), norming (intimacy, focuses on trust and structure), performing (work, expression of individual differences, adjourning and separation (members appreciation for each other).
describe Satir's 5 styles of communication:
Placater (agreeing, apologizing, pleasing), blamer (acuses, dominates), super reasonable (emotionally detached), irrelevant (seeks to distract others, has difficulty relating to what's going on), congruent communicator (clear messages, is genuine).
compared to traditional psychoanalysis, psychoanalytic psychotherapy is more:
brief, direct, reliant on positive transference to facilitate progress focused on the present.
who are the leading theorists of the humanistic/existential movement?
Rogers (person centered therapy), Perls, and Eric Berne
What is the critical component of person centered therapy?
the experiential relationship between therapist and client (alliance). Therapist is nondirective and their attitudes (empathy, confirming, etc.) are the critical ingredients of effective therapy. human beings have an inherent tendency towards self-actualization.
A 'paradoxical technique' is the same as:
prescribing the symptom.
name 3 models of existential therapy:
Gestalt, person-centered (carl rogers), and transactional analysis (eric Berne).
Describe family therapy:
social worker focuses on family dynamics rather than the child.
Name 3 different cognitive models.
Cognitive therapy (beck), RET (Albert Ellis), self management/self instruction (meichenbaum)
Ellis' explanation of personality.
A- activating events
B belief system of individual
C consequent emotion of A and B.
D disputing irrational thoughts and beliefs
E emotional and cognitive effects of revised beliefs
Utilizing bowen's brand of therapy, what would be a main form of interaction with clients?
Coaching. (Other therapeutic techniques include the 'therapeutic triangle,' genogram, questioning, and detriangulation- where the therapist avoids taking sides with partners, and encourages each of them to take responsibility for their part in family problems.).
When does the Hawthorne effect occur?
when subjects behave differently than they normally do b/c they are aware that they are being observed for research purposes.
In terms of research, what do the following terms refer to: validity? reliability? dependability? credibility?
V= when a test measure the variable or dimension it is supposed to measure.
R = refers to the consistency in the measurements of a variable
D= refers to trustworthiness and integrity of research
C= refers to believability of research.
what is the purpose of correlational research?
to identify the extent in which changes in one variable are associated with changes of other variables.
statement that predicts that there will be no relationship between 2 or more variables.
what is experimental research?
when you expose one or more experimental groups to one or more control groups in an effort to identify possible cause and effect relationship.
describe evaluative research.
to determine the extent to which an intervention or program has been successful in achieving its goals and objectives or is cost effective.
a statement that predicts a cause and effect relationship between variables.
in the case of x and y values in a set of (x, y) pairs, what happens to the y value as the x value decreases in a positive correlation?
it also decreases.
what is the premack principle?
it involves using a high probability behavior to reinforce a low probability behavior in order to increase the frequency of the low probability behavior (allowing a child to play a video game for 30 mins after doing homework).
what is response cost?
withdrawing a specific positive reinforcer each time an undesirable behavior is performed *i.e. child loses a token earned previously for appropriate behavior.
what is a dependent variable?
the outcome thought to be caused by or influenced by the independent variable (which is thought to influence or cause the outcome).
what is an independent variable?
that which is thought to influence or cause a behavior or outcome.
What did William Reid and Laura Epstein develop in the 70's?
Task-centered TX. Focuses on problems and behaviors: not emotions. Termination begins in 1st session.
Re: schedules of reinforcement:
refers to reinforcing every occurrence of the target behavior. Continuous reinforcement is useful early in the learning process.
Re: schedules of reinforcement:
is reinforcement of only some occurrences of the target behavior. This is useful in maintaining behavior. (think Las vegas).
Re: schedules of reinforcement:
refers to providing reinforcement after a specific time period has elapsed following the occurrence of the desired behavior.
Re: schedules of reinforcement:
refers to reinforcement occurring at varying times after occurrences of the desired behavior (i.e. 5 mins, then 10 mins, then 3 mins).
Re: schedules of reinforcement:
is reinforcement that is given on a non-varying basis (i.e. after every 5 occurrences of the behavior)
Re: schedules of reinforcement:
reinforcement that is given on a varying basis (i.e. after five occurrences of the behavior, then, after 10 occurrences of the behavior).
a treatment contract that makes a specified consequence, pleasant or unpleasant, contingent on a specific behavior or behaviors.
widely used approach for reinforcing desirable behaviors that involves rewarding these behaviors with tokens that can redeemed for reinforcers (i.e. special 1-1 time with the teacher).
Who was linked with reality therapy? What is the goal of this therapy?
William Glasser. To enable the client to take better control of his or her life. It rejects the medical model and the concept of mental illness.
what are the 5 psychological needs related to reality therapy?
belonging, power, freedom, fun, and survival.
List Beck's 7 common thinking errors.
All-or-nothing thinking/black and white thinking, emotional reasoning, overgeneralization, magnification and minimization, personalization, catastrophizing, and mind reading.
Cognitive therapy is time limited, has a relatively strict structure, goal-oriented, problem-focused, and emphasizes relapse prevention. List 6 cognitive methods:
Collaborative empiricism, socratic dialogue (use of questions to lead the individual to discover a reality), guided discovery (structured interventions), decatastrophizing, reattribution training (involves the identification of cognitive errors and distortions in thinking followed by the consideration of alternative beliefs), and decentering (involves helping the client to break his or her pattern of seeing self as the reference point for all life events).
What does Ellis believe about activating events?
they do not cause a person to feel a certain way, but feelings are the consequences of the individual's beliefs about the event.
What does Ellis believe about emotional health?
It results from the rational or logical processing of activating events.
Who came up with the 'bad me,' 'good me,' and 'not me?' ideas? Describe their meanings.
Harry Stack Sullivan.
bad me= represents negative self, hidden from others
good me= everything we like about ourselves, share with others
not me= represents things that produce excessive anxiety; kept out of awareness by suppressing it deep into the unconscious.
What school did Fromm come up with?
Frankfurt school of critical theory. He believed that one can transcend biological and societal factors.
Jungian personality theory states that:
the personality is the consequence of both conscious and unconscious factors.
What was Jung's overarching goal for people?
Individuation; becoming whole, as opposed to moral, or perfect.
What are two ego oriented approaches to TX?
1 ego supportive: restore, maintain, enhance adaptive functioning, used with clients who have deficits in ego strength, low tolerance for anxiety, and poor impulse control.
2 ego modifying: modification of basic personality patterns. psychologically based, more long-term. therapists seek to help clients use increased insight and conflict resolution. Used with those who have good ego strength.
describe the basic characteristics if humanistic models:
they include an emphasis on the uniqueness and wholeness of the individual, a belief in the individual's inherent striving for self-determination and self-actualization, and a focus on current behavior.
Who imported existential psychoanalysis from Europe?
According to Gestalt therapy, neurotic behavior is considered a ___________________?
developmental disorder resulting from early experience.
In which therapy is the therapist-client relationship referred to as an I-thou dialogue relationship?
What is a commonly used group therapy modality (due to the fact that it teaches individuals to trust one another)?
Name the 4 life positions related to T.A.
I'm OK, You're Ok, I'm ok, you're not ok, I'm not OK, you're OK, I'm not OK, you're not OK.
What approach does TA emphasize?
The pragmatic approach, that is, it seeks to find what works. It continually evolves.
Which group therapy model is used in clinical outpatient and inpatient settings; whose goal is to restore or rehabilitate individuals exhibiting dysfunctional behavior?
The Remedial Model.
Describe the Reciprocal model of group therapy
It's used in clinical inpatient and outpatient settings, and in neighborhood and community centers. Its purpose is to provide mutual aid to group members in achieving optimum adaptation and socialization. Group worker functions as a mediator between members, group, and society to assist all concerned in getting their needs met.
Regarding group composition, what did Rudolf Dreikurs believe?
Members should be matched by age, particularly in children's groups, and that there should be no more than 2 years' difference between the oldest and the youngest.
Regarding TX groups, why would a homogenous mix be preferable to a heterogenous mix?
They tend to gel faster, become more cohesive, offer more immediate support to group members, have better attendance, have less conflict, and provide more symptomatic relief.
List Bowen's 8 Family Systems Theory concepts:
Differentiation of self, Nuclear family emotional system, triangles, societal emotional process, emotional cutoff, sibling position, family projection process, multigenerational transmission process (this describes how small individual differences between parents and their offspring lead over many generations to big differences among the individuals in a multigenerational family).
Name the key contributors to Communications/Experiential family therapy.
Greg Bateson, Don Jackson, Virgina Satir, and Jay Haley.
Describe 'double bind.'
a communication that involves contradictory demands- the recipient of the communication cannot comment on the contradictions in the communication, and is unable to escape the inevitable consequences of only being able to meet one of the demands.
Re: family therapy, who saw explicit and implicit family rules as coming out of the parents' approach to their own self-esteem?
Satir. (These rules create the atmosphere of the family or the context for the development of the children's self-esteem).
Which therapy is an expansion of strategic therapy?
Milan Systemic therapy.
Which techniques does Milan Systemic therapy include?
Hypothesizing, neutrality, rituals, paradoxical prescription/directive, counterparadox, positive connotation, and circular questions.
Who is related to behavioral marital therapy? And what are the skills taught within it?
Stuart. It seeks to improve relationships between a couple by increasing the frequency of positive exchanges and decreasing the frequency of negative and punishing interactions. Skills:
expressing themselves in clear, behavioral terms, improved communication skills, establishing a means to share power and decision making, and improved problem solving skills.
Who is related to emotionally focused therapy, and what are its basic principles?
Greenberg and Johnson. Relationships are attachment bonds, partners are viewed as being able to cope as optimally as they can, given their current circumstances, rigid interaction patterns create and reflect absorbing emotional states, emotions are the target and agent of change, and change involves a new experience of the self.
Who first conceptualized a basic problem solving model for individuals in the 1950's?
two types of communication skills?
verbal following skills and focusing skills.
describe key components of verbal following skills.
1 furthering responses (tells client you're listening)- brief.
2 paraphrasing (restating the client's message in your own words).
3 seeking concreteness (helps clients to discuss their experiences using explicit terms rather than abstract or general terms)
4 summarizing (highlights main ideas and themes).
5 questioning (closed ended and open ended). Stacked and leading questions should NOT be used.
useful focusing skills include:
open ended questions, seeking concreteness, empathic responding.
what are the components of effective confrontation?
support the goals of therapy, meet the client's needs, effective if appropriately times, specific in nature, and client-based.
when linking clients with needed resources, which roles might a social worker take on?
broker, case manager, mediator, and client advocate.
what are some strategies that involuntary clients utilize in treatment?
withdrawal, diversion, aggression.
what is the difference between values and ethics?
values define a belief system, ethics define a standard of conduct based on that belief system.
what is the primary objective of supervision?
to make sure that the client's needs are met in accordance with the goals and objectives of the agency.
What are the 6 stages of consultation?
1 entry stage (working on gaining organization's acceptance), 2 goal/problem identification stage
3 goal definition stage (data, evidence collection- concrete sense? measurable goal)
4 intervention stage (implement strategies)
5 assessment stage (evaluation)
6 concluding the relationship stage (hopefully mutual decision).
what are two widely used types of planning?
strategic (long term planning method that involves the delineation of the mission, goals, objectives, etc)
contingency (identification of potential emergencies+ corresponding action plans).
describe the structuralist management theory:
promote the idea that organizations are viewed as being impacted heavily by environmental factors, that conflict is inevitable and results from differing goals and agendas, and that conflict does not have to be negative.
describe the 'quality circles' management theory:
refers to a Japanese variation on participative management and consist of a group of volunteers, headed by a supervisor, who meet on a regular basis during work hours to resolve production related problems.
who is associated with job enrichment theory, and what is its premise?
Herzberg. 2 factors include: hygiene (good benefits, status, working conditions), and motivators (challenge, freedom, associated growth potential). self-actualization is a powerful motivator for staff, and employers can build motivation in their staff by creating jobs with greater self-actualization potential even if it means a decrease in hygiene factors.
what is the most common form of budget?
line-item budget (broken down into various categories of expenditure, such as staff salaries, office supplies, etc.
describe zero based budgeting:
budgeting based on zero monies at the beginning of the budget year- must justify each dollar requested for the year. eliminates unnecessary budget allocations.
describe 2 different types of program evaluation:
Summative (outcome analysis)- evaluates the extent to which goals and objectives have been achieved and the extent to which identified effects of the program can be generalized to other populations and settings. Formative (process analysis) evaluates a program from the planning stage through implementation stage.
What is the primary approach to intelligence taken by information processing?
alterations in schemes in abilities.
when functioning as an examiner for the court, a social worker:
must report any relevant information.
True or false: childhood disintegrative disorder includes the criteria: normal development for the 1st 11 years after birth.
depression nearly ______________ an elder's chance for stroke.
when fetal abnormalities occur as a result of a substance, such as alcohol, this substance is called a:
jane has learned to feed herself with a spoon. when her mother giver her a fork, she immediately begins to feed herself. Jabe has _________ the fork into her schema for utensils.
Which human development theorist was a genetic epistemologist?
Parents leave their 10-month-old daughter at a friend's house for the evening; the daughter has never been away from them before. When they come back, the friend indicates their daughter has been a model child and did not cry or miss them at all. Attachment theory indicates that:
Attachment is insecure/avoidant.
what's a mnemonic for Adler's basic concepts?
B--Birth Order influences the development of life style.
I--Inferiority Complex is a sense of inadequacy.
L--Life Style is developed in childhood to compensate for inferiority and weakness.
S--Superiority results from striving to overcome inferiority.
the use of many structured situations can help group deal with closeness: T or F?
What does a scatter plot of a weak, negative correlation look like?
lots of scatters from top left to bottom right.
an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectation of the individual's culture falls under which category of disorder?
Someone experiencing chest pain, nausea, pounding heart and dizziness over the last 6 months is likely suffering from?
A method of helping a client become more self aware by bringing to light components of his thoughts, feelings, or behavior of which he is unaware is called:
Questioning the evidence is a technique used in:
When helping a client clearly identify what is happening, and to change maladaptive patterns, the best course of action is to use the technique of:
In using Antabuse, the discontinuation of the drug should occur when:
the client utilizes new skills for abstinence.
A major role of a group leader in a therapeutic group is to:
support the natural process of the group.
The type of group most associated with self-improvement and opportunities to expand self-awareness is:
the growth group.
when a client becomes upset during cognitive restructuring, the best course of action is to:
temporarily pause the technique.
a client displays dilation of pupils, dry mouth, and increased heart rate. from which division in the autonomic nervous system would these symptoms emerge?