Scottish missionary doctor who explored southern and central Africa. His main goal was to scout out locations for Christian missionaries, but he also traced the course of the Zambezi River, naming its greatest waterfall for Queen Victoria. Encountered Henry Morton Stanley while tracing the course of the upper Congo River. Received warm hospitality from locals.
Henry Morton Stanley
journalist who took a publicity-motivated search for the "lost" missionary doctor David Livingstone. His large expeditions fought their way across the continent until he found Livingstone on the upper Congo River.
leader of Egyptian modernization in the early 19th century. Ruled Egypt as an Ottoman governor but had imperial ambitions. His descendants ruled Egypt until overthrown in 1952. He began the reforms that created modern Egypt. The technical expertise of the west was combined with Islamic religious and cultural traditions. He caused Egypt's population to double, trade with Europe to expand, and a new class of educated Egyptians to replace the old ruling aristocracy. The industrialization provided the country with its own textiles, paper, weapons, and military uniforms.
(1772-1833) Western-educated Bengali from a Brahmin family, successful administrator for the East India Company and student of comparative religion. Founded the Brahmo Samaj. Promoted development such as reducing the country's social and ethnic division and promoting Pan-Indian nationalism.
an upstart military genius who created the Zulu kingdom in 1818, when a serious drought hit the region. Expanded his kingdom by raiding his African neighbors, seizing their cattle, and capturing their women and children. Ruled for little more than a decade. Succeeded in creating a new national identity. Grouped all the young people in his domains by age into regiments, who lived together and immersed themselves in Zulu lore, culture, and fighting methods.
Usman dan Fodio
The largest of the new Muslim reform movements occurred in the Hausa states under this person's leadership. He charged that the Hausa kings, despite their official profession of Islam, were really not believers. Distressed by the lapses of the king of Gobir, he issued a call in 1804 for a jihad to overthrow him.
a people of modern South Africa whom King Shaka united in 1818. The most powerful and most feared fighters in southern Africa, due to their strict military drill, close-combat tactics, ox-hide shields, and lethal stabbing spears. The number of herds of cattle someone had determined his wealth.
Descendents of Dutch and French settlers who occupied farms and ranches in the hinterland of Cape Colony. Thought of themselves as permanent residents of Africa, despite their European origins. Laws that protected African rights alienated them. Between 1836 and 1839, they embarked on a "Great Trek", leaving Cape Colony for the fertile high plateau to the north. They were a tiny minority surrounded by the populous and powerful independent African kingdoms.
Expanding shipping networks brought in growing numbers of visitors and settlers to this place after the exploration of James Cook on its eastern coast. At the time, hunter-gathers lived here, whose Melanesian ancestors had settled there some 40,000 years earlier. The first permanent British settlers here were convicts sent to exile. The British called the indigenous population "Aborigines". A gold rush brought more people.
Divine Society founded in 1828 by Rammohun Roy. It attracted Indians who sought to reconcile the values of the West with the religious traditions of India. Advocated reforming some Hindu customs and urged a return to the founding principles of the Upanishads. Backed British efforts to ban certain practices, such as widow burning and slavery, as well as other abuses of women.
the rule over much of South Asia between 1765 and 1947 by the East India Company and then by a British government. One of its goals was to remake India on a British model. "Westernization, Anglicization, and modernization" was part of British rule, as well as the bolstering of "traditions", many of which the Europeans made up.
large, fast, streamlined sailing vessel, often American built, of the mid-to-late 19th century rigged with vast canvas sails hung from tall masts. After 1850, they were commonplace in the British merchant fleet. Faster than earlier vessels. New ships could complete voyages in half the usual time, stimulating maritime trade.
Contract of indenture
a voluntary agreement binding a person to work for a specified period of years in return for free passage to an overseas destination. Before 1800 most of this kind of servant were Europeans; after 1800 most were Asians. They were paid a small salary and were provided with housing, clothing, and medical care. Indian indentured laborers also received the right to a free passage home if they worked a second 5-year contract.
an elaborated display of political power and wealth in British India in the 19th century, ostensibly in imitation of the pageantry of the Mughal Empire. Great pageants put together by viceroys for certain occasions, such as the proclamation of Queen Victoria as "Empress of India".
Indian Civil Service
The elite professional class of officials who administered the government of British India. Originally composed exclusively of well-educated British men, it gradually added qualified Indians. Members of it held the senior administrative and judicial posts. They visited the villages in their districts, heard lawsuits and complaints, and passed judgments.
Indian National Congress
a movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until WWI. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, it appealed increasingly to the poor, and it organized mass protests demanding self-government and independence. Called for reductions in military expenditures.
a Muslim prince allied to British India; technically, a semi-autonomous deputy of the Mughal emperor. They ruled their own powerful states.
James Cook's explorations brought in people to this place. The first residents were temporary residents who slaughtered seals and exported pelts to Western countries to make hats. Whales were also hunted near here. A gold rush attracted more people. Women immigrants were asked to come to offset the huge majority of men settlers. Britain encouraged the settlers to be self-governing.
Africans rescued by Britain's Royal Navy from the illegal slave trade of the 19th century and restored to free status. They settled in and around Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone, with the help of Christian missionaries.
a soldier in South Asia, especially in the service of the British. Indian troops trained by Europeans to protect their fortified warehouses from attack.
a small West African colony that was taken over by the British in 1808 to serve as a base for their anti-slave-trade naval squadron. Men, women, and children taken from captured slave ships were liberated here. The capital was Freetown.
an island that had clove plantations and was an important center of slaves and ivory. The sultan moved his court here in 1840 to take advantage of the burgeoning trade in cloves.
exports from Africa in the 19th century that did not include the newly outlawed slave trade. Palm oil became one of the new main exports.
the process of reforming political, military, economic, social, and cultural traditions in imitation of the early success of Western societies, often with regard for accommodating local traditions in non-Western societies.
the revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs; aka the Sepoy Mutiny. It was the unlawful action of soldiers. Much more than a simple mutiny, because it involved more than soldiers, but not yet a nationalist revolution, for the rebels had little sense of a common Indian national identity.
a large Muslim state founded in 1809 in what is now northern Nigeria. The largest state in West Africa since the 16th century. Made up of united Hausa states and neighboring areas that had been conquered. The caliph ruled from the city of Sokoto.
Commodore Matthew Perry
a navy commander who, on July 8, 1853, became the first foreigner to break through the barriers that had kept Japan isolated from the rest of the world for 250 years. He delivered a letter from the US president, demanding that Japan open its ports to foreign trade. A year later, he returned for their reply, bringing some Western technology.
leader of British suffragists, demanded the right for women to vote. However, British women still did not vote until 1918. Frequently called attention to her cause by breaking the law to protect discrimination against women.
Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress of China and mother of Emperor Guangxi. She put her son under house arrest, supported anti-foreign movements, and resisted reforms of the Chinese government and armed forces. Opposed railways and other foreign technologies that could carry foreign influences to the interior. Her officials secretly encouraged crowds to attack and destroy intrusive devices.
Italian nationalist and fiery revolutionary who conquered Sicily and Naples and added them to a unified Italy in 1860. Overthrew, with his followers, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and prepared to found a democratic republic.
German journalist and philosopher, founder of the Marxist branch of socialism. He is known for 2 books: Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848) and Das Kapital (Vols. I-III, 1867-1894). Collaborated with Friedrich Engels. Combined German philosophy, French revolutionary ideas, and knowledge of British industrial conditions. He saw history as a long series of conflicts between social classes. Saw business enterprises becoming larger and more monopolistic and workers growing more numerous and impoverished. Thought that inevitably, there would be a revolution and overthrow of the bourgeoisie, after which the workers would establish a communist society without classes.
Man who collaborated with Karl Marx. Wrote The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844. Combined, along with Marx, German philosophy, French revolutionary ideas, and knowledge of British industrial conditions.
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor (prime minister) of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire in 1871. Brilliant and authoritarian aristocrat. Was determined to use Prussian industry and German nationalism to make his state the dominant power in Germany. "Blood and iron" were the foundations of his empire.
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures. Created the world's first electrical distribution network in NYC.
Revolutionaries who wanted to abolish all private property and governance, usually by violence, and replace them with free associations of groups.
a form of energy used in telegraphy from the 1840s on and for lighting, industrial motors, and railroads beginning in the 1880s. More flexible and easier to use than water power or stationary steam engines. Edison created the world's first distribution network for this energy source in New York City. Replaced gas lamps, steam engines and power belts.
networks of iron (later steel) rails on which steam (later electric/diesel) locomotives pulled long trains at high speeds. The first ones were built in England in the 1830s. Their success caused a building boom throughout the world that lasted well into the 20th century. Every industrializing country had them, as well as anywhere that they would be of value to business or government, such as places with raw materials.
German parliament. When Bismarck extended the vote to all adult men, the Socialists were able to win seats here.
A form of iron that is both durable and flexible. First mass-produced in the 1860s and quickly became the most widely used metal in construction, machinery, and railroad equipment. Cheapest and most versatile metal ever known. William Kelly and Henry Bessemer discovered that air forced through molten pig iron by powerful pumps turned it into this without additional fuel. Also could be made from scrap iron and from phosphoric iron cores. It was used to make rails, bridges, ships, and "tin" cans.
Submarine telegraph cables
insulated copper cables laid along the bottom of a sea or ocean for telegraphic communication. The first short cable was laid across the English Channel in 1851; the first successful transatlantic cable was laid in 1866. Connected every country and almost every inhabited island.
In 1900, Chinese officials around the Empress Dowager Cixi encouraged a series of anti-foreign riots. Military forces from the European power, Japan, and the US put down the riots and occupied Beijing. It was put together by a Chinese secret society, the Righteous Fists. Japan's participation in this event suppression demonstrated its military power in East Asia.
Many Europeans left Europe for non-European countries with predominantly white populations. Some reasons for the migrations: Irish famine, persecution of Jews, poverty and population growth in Italy, Spain, Poland, and Scandinavia, and the cultural ties between Great Britain and English-speaking countries overseas. Also, cheap and rapid steamships and railroads served travelers at both ends.
an organization of workers in a particular industry/trade, created to defend the interests of members through strikes or negotiations with employers. Formed by industrial workers.
a political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes of Europe and North America. It emerged from the French Revolution, asserted the sovereignty of the people, and demanded constitutional government, a national parliament, and freedom of expression.
the political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism. The rulers were talented and far-sighted and encouraged Japan's transformation into a "rich country with a strong army" with world-class industries. Marked as profound a change as the French Revolution.
a political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation - a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, it was a force for unity in western Europe. In the late 19th century, it hastened the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires. In the 20th century it provided the ideological foundation for scores of independent countries emerging from colonialism. Whereas people had previously been considered the subjects of a sovereign, French revolutionaries defined people as the citizens of a nation - a concept identified with a territory, the state that ruled it, and the culture of its people.
19th-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have clearly differentiated roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics. Successful businessmen spent their time at work or relaxing in men's clubs, while their wives reared the children, ran the household, and spent the family money to enhance the family's social status.
a political ideology that originated in Europe in the 1830s. Its followers advocated government protection of workers from exploitation by property owners and government ownership of industries. This ideology led to the founding socialist or labor parties throughout Europe in the 2nd half of the 19th century. It was developed by radical thinkers who questioned the sanctity of private property and argued in support of industrial workers against their employers.
The reign of Queen Victoria of Great Britain (r. 1837-1901). The term is also used to describe late-19th century society, with its rigid moral standards and sharply differentiated roles for men and women and for middle-class and working-class people. Contrasted the masculine ideals of strength and courage with the feminine virtues of beauty and kindness, and idealized the home as a peaceful and loving refuge.
South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the 17th century. Their Great Trek founded new settler colonies in the 19th century. Though a minority among South Africans, they held political power after 1910, imposing a system of racial segregation called apartheid after 1949. They were angered when Great Britain annexed an area in Kimberley where diamonds were discovered.
African kingdom on the Gold Coast that expanded rapidly after 1680. They participated in the Atlantic economy, trading gold, slaves, and ivory. It resisted British imperial ambitions for a quarter century before being absorbed into Britain's Gold Coast colony in 1902. They fought back against the Europeans.
British entrepreneur and politician involved in the expansion of the British Empire from South Africa into Central Africa. The colonies of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) were named after him. British invasion of southern Africa was driven in part by this man's ambition. He made his fortune in the Kimberley diamond fields and then turned to politics. Encouraged the British South Africa Company to push north into Central Africa.
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the US Army in 1901. He was a leader of a secret society. For a while, he cooperated with the Americans, but rose up when he full independence plan was rejected.
Henry Morton Stanley
British-American explorer of Africa, famous for his expeditions in search of Dr. David Livingstone. He helped King Leopold II establish the Congo Free State. He persuaded Leopold II to invest his personal fortune in "opening up" equatorial Africa and returned to Africa to establish trading posts.
King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908). Was influenced by Henry Morton Stanley. As a reward for triggering the "scramble" for Africa, he acquired a personal domain under the name "Congo Free State".
Emperor of Ethiopia (r. 1889-1911). He enlarged Ethiopia to its present dimensions and defeated an Italian invasion at Adowa (1896). When he became emperor, his country was threatened by Sudanese Muslims, France, and Italy. His army of Ethiopians had thousands of rifles and even machine guns and artillery pieces, surprising the Italians and winning against them in battle.
Savorgnan de Brazza
Franco-Italian explorer sent by the French government to claim part of equatorial Africa for France. Founded Brazzaville, capital of the French Congo, in 1880. Obtained from an African ruler on the northern bank of the Congo River an area under the "protection" of France.
This place had emerged as a powerful kingdom by 1750, but was thwarted by Thai leaders when it tried to annex Siam. It attacked Assam next, but this provoked a war with British India. Two of its coastal provinces in the north were annexed by India in 1826. As rice and timber trade from these provinces grew important, the occupation became permanent, and in 1852 British India annexed the rest of the coastal areas.
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by US Army engineers; it opened in 1915. The canal greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. Work on it began in 1904. The US turned the canal over to Panama on January 1, 2000.
One of the few areas that remained independent from colonial powers, however some of its border provinces were lost. Much of the wealth of Southeast Asia and Indonesia (the area where this place is found) was exported to Europe and North America, while the region received 2 benefits: peace and a reliable food supply.
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It was opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882. The khedive of Egypt at the time invited all the Christian princes of Europe and all the Muslim princes of Asia and Africa (except the ottoman sultan) to celebrate the inauguration of this great work. By lowering freight costs, the canal stimulated shipping and the construction of steamships. Great Britain benefited more than any other country, and Egypt benefited the least.
"Scramble" for Africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of north-western Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts. Basically, they got a map of Africa and drew lines dividing it up, without any regard for the well-being of the locals.
Battle of Omdurman
British victory over the Mahdi in the Sudan in 1898. General Kitchener led a mixed force of British and Egyptian troops armed with rapid-firing rifles and machine guns. Within a few hours, 11,000 Sudanese and 48 British lay dead. African soldiers armed with muskets/spears did not have a chance against the British technology and weaponry, no matter how numerous or courageous they were.
Conference that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called to set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium. Took place from 1884 to 1885. The major powers agreed the henceforth "effective occupation" would replace the former trading relations between Africans and Europeans. Every country with colonial ambitions had to send troops into Africa and participate in the division of the spoils.
Policy by which a nation administers a foreign territory and develops its resources for the benefit of the powerful country. In some places, there was already a considerable trade that could be taxed, whereas in some places, profits came only from investments and a thorough reorganization of the indigenous societies.
Economic dominance of a weaker country by a more powerful one, while maintaining the legal independence of the weaker state. In the late 19th century, this characterized the relations between the Latin American republics, on the one hand, and Great Britain and the US, on the other. The weaker countries' natural resources made them attractive targets for manipulation by the industrial powers.
Historians' term for the late-19th and early-20th century wave of conquests by European powers, the US, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories for the benefit of the colonial powers. They used their industrial technology to impose their will on the nonindustrial parts of the world.
Spanish American War
On February 15, 1989, the US battleship Maine accidentally blew up in Havana harbor, killing 266 American sailors, so the US government blamed Spain and issued an ultimatum that the Spanish evacuate Cuba. Spain agreed, but the US was eager for war. The war was over quickly. On May 1, 1898, US warships destroyed the Spanish fleet at Manila in the Philippines and two months later sunk the Spanish Atlantic fleet off Santiago, Cuba. By mid-August Spain was suing for peace. The US bought the Philippines and took Puerto Rico and Guam.
German physicist who developed the theory of relativity, which states that time, space, and mass are relative to each other and are not fixed. Undermined Newtonian physics.
The founder of modern Turkey. Distinguished himself in the defense of Gallipoli in WWI and expelled a Greek expeditionary army from Anatolia in 1921-1922. Replaced the Ottoman Empire with the Turkish Republic in 1923. As president, he pushed through a radical Westernization and reform of Turkish society. Name means "Father of the Turks". Real name was Mustafa Kemal. Eager to bring Turkey closer to Europe as quickly as possible. Introduced European laws, suppressed Muslim courts, replaced the Arabic alphabet with the Latin alphabet, gave women civil equality, forbade polygamy, and replaced the fez with the European brimmed hat.
Chinese military and political leader. Succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang in 1925; headed the Chinese government from 1928-1949; fought against the Chinese Communists and Japanese invaders. After 1949 he headed the Chinese Nationalist government in Taiwan. Officer and director of the military academy. Determined to defeat regional warlords. His government issued ambitious plans to build railroads, develop agriculture and industry, and modernize China from the top down. However, his government attracted opportunists whose only goal was to get rich and be in power.
Arab prince, leader of the Arab Revolt in WWI, which contributed to the defeat of the Ottoman Empire. The British made him king of Iraq in 1921, and he reigned under British protection until 1933. He led an Arab army in support of the British advance from Egypt into Palestine and Syria.
the only leading Communist in Russia who had never lived abroad. Insisted that socialism could survive "in one country". Filled the party bureaucracy with individuals loyal to him. Had Trotsky expelled and forced him to flee the country. Prepared to industrialize the Soviet Union at breakneck speed.
German physicist who developed quantum theory and was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1918. Found that atoms emit or absorb energy in discrete amounts called quanta.
Austrian psychiatrist, founder of psychoanalysis. He argued that psychological problems were caused by traumas, especially sexual experiences in early childhood, that were repressed in later life. His ideas caused considerable controversy among psychologists and in the general public. Although his views on repressed sexuality are no longer widely accepted, his psychoanalytic methods are still very influential. He believed that the primitive, savage, and evil impulses have not vanished from any individual, but continue to exist in a repressed state.
Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang until his death. Attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders. Spent much of his life in Japan, England, and the US, plotting the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty. His ideas were a mixture of nationalism, socialism, and Confucian philosophy. Patriotic, ambitious, and tenacious. When he was elected president, he had no military forces at his command, and to avoid a clash with the army, he resigned after a few weeks
Austrian journalist and founder of the Zionist movement urging the creation of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine. Zionism appealed to many Europeans as a humanitarian solution to the problem of anti-Semitism.
Leader of the Bolshevik (later Communist) Party. Lived in exile in Switzerland until 1917 and then returned to Russia to lead the Bolsheviks to victory during the Russian Revolution and the civil war that followed. Son of a government official. Spent his time in exile organizing his followers. His goal was to create a party that would lead the revolution rather than wait for it. His program announced immediate peace, all power to the soviets, and transfers of land to the peasants and factories to the workers.
Wilbur and Orville Wright
American bicycle mechanics; the 1st to build and fly an airplane, at Kitty Hawk, NC, December 7, 1903. Built the first aircraft that was heavier than air and could be maneuvered in flight.
President of the US (1913-1921) and the leading figure at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. Unable to persuade the US Congress to ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations. Kept the US neutral for 3 years, until the German's unrestricted submarine warfare pulled the US into the war.
Chinese general and the 1st president of the Chinese Republic (1912-1916). Stood in the way of Sun Yet-sen's democratic movement. Refused to defend the Qing when a regional army mutinied in October 1911. When Sun Yat-sen was elected president, he had no military forces at his command, and to avoid a clash with the army, he resigned after a few weeks After that, this person was elected president.
Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. Under Lenin's leadership, they seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution. They were obedient to Lenin's will.
Nationalist political party founded on democratic principles by Sun Yat-sen in 1912. After 1925, the party was headed by Chiang Kai-shek, who turned it into an increasingly authoritarian movement. Aka the National People's Party.
A line of trenches and fortifications in WWI that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany, on the one hand, and France and Britain, on the other. It extended some 300 miles. The process was like this - Generals ordered troops to attack; they would climb out of the trenches and race across the open fields, and were then mowed down by enemy machine-gun fire.
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. He wrote it as British armies were advancing on Jerusalem. The British did not know that this statement would lead to conflicts between Palestinians and Jewish settlers.
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the US to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s, and it was superseded by the United Nations in 1945. It was proposed by Woodrow Wilson. Its idealism clashed with the more hardheaded and self-serving nationalism of the Europeans.
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after WWI, to be administered under League of Nations supervision "for the material and moral well-being and the social progress of the inhabitants" of the territories.
New Economic Policy (NEP)
Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1923 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. It allowed peasants to own land and sell their crops, private merchants to trade, and private workshops to produce goods and sell them on the free market. Only the biggest businesses remained under government ownership. Stalin ended it in 1928 and replaced it with a series of 5 Year Plans.
Russian Civil War
conflict from 1918-1920 in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government (under Lenin) against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Revolutionaries formerly hunted by the tsar's police came out of hiding, such as the Social Revolutionaries.
two revolutions in Russia, the first of which, in February overthrew the imperial government and the second of which, in October, placed the Bolsheviks in power. Lenin overthrew the Provisional Government and arrested Mensheviks, Social Revolutionaries, and other rivals.
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty imposed on Germany by France, Great Britain, the US, and other Allied Powers after WWI. It demanded that Germany dismantle its military and give up some lands to Poland. It was resented by many Germans, because it humiliated them. Germany had to promise to pay reparations to compensate the victors for their losses. A "guilt clause" obliged the Germans to accept total responsibility for the war.
World War I (Great War)
(1914-18) International conflict between the Central Powers—Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey—and the Allied Powers—mainly France, Britain, Russia, Italy, Japan, and (from 1917) the U.S. Between 8 million and 10 million people died, almost all of them young men. Perhaps twice that many returned home wounded, gassed, or shell-shocked, and many injured for life. Caused serious environmental damage, especially on the Western Front. Forests and towns were demolished, trenches gouged the earth, and the ground was littered with ammunition, broken weapons, chunks of concrete, and bones.
Chinese military and political leader. Succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang in 1925; headed the Chinese government from 1928-1948; fought against the Chinese Communists and Japanese invaders. After 1949, he headed the Chinese Nationalist Government in Taiwan. His government was mainly troubled by the Communists, among them Mao Zedong. He arrested and executed Communists and labor leaders alike.
Born in Austria, he became a radical German nationalist during WWI. Led the National Socialist German Workers' Party - the Nazis - in the 1920s and became dictator of Germany in 1933. Led Europe into WWII. Was in the German army in 1914 and was wounded at the front. A good orator. Wrote Mein Kampf while in jail, but it attracted little notice because his ideas seemed to be so insane. Wanted a "master race" of Aryans to rule, defeating and subjugating all others.
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communist Party after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928-1953. Led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using 5-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush all opposition. Son of a poor shoemaker. His name means "man of steel". Filled the party's bureaucracy with men loyal to him. Determined to prevent a repetition of the humiliating defeat Russia had suffered at the hands of Germany in 1917.
Leader of the Chinese Communist Party (1927-1976). Led the Communists on the Long March (1934-1935) and rebuilt the Communist Party and Red Army during the Japanese occupation of China (1937-1945). After WWII, he led the Communists to victory over the Guomindang. Ordered the Cultural Revolution in 1966. A farmer's son who left home to study philosophy. A man of action who called for violent effort. Planned to redistribute land from the wealthier to the poorer peasants, calling for a complete social revolution. Advocated women's equality.
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). Led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in WWII. He was over-thrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. Spellbinding orator. Threatened to march on Rome if he was not appointed prime minister, and the timid parliamentarians gave into him. Applied the techniques of modern mass communication and advertisement to political life. Adolf Hitler was one of his imitators.
the party boss of Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) who was assassinated in December 1934, perhaps on Stalin's orders. Stalin made a public display of mourning this person's death while blaming others for it, and then ordered purge trials to accuse his own enemies of treason.
Nazi extermination camp in Poland, the largest center of mass murder during the Holocaust. Close to a million Jews, Gypsies, Communists, and others were killed there. It was a giant industrial complex designed to kill up to 12,000 people a day.
Labor camps. At the height of the terror under Stalin, some 8 million people were sent to them, where perhaps a million died each year of exposure or malnutrition. Fear of being sent here turned a sullen and resentful people into docile hard-working subjects of the party.
"fists". The better-off Russian peasants who began to resist giving up all their property for the collectivization of agriculture. They burned their crops, smashed their equipment, and slaughtered their livestock when soldiers came to force them into collectives at gunpoint. In retaliation, Stalin ordered the poorer peasants to attack them. Many were executed or sent to slave labor camps.
German political party led by Adolf Hitler, emphasizing nationalism, racism, and war. When Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933, they became the only legal party and an instrument of Hitler's absolute rule. Their formal name was National Socialist German Worker's Party. Under Hitler's rule, they were in charge of all government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Deprived Jews of citizenship and civil rights.
City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the German army in 1942-1943. The battle that took place here was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union. It was the key to the Volga River and the supply of oil, so the Germans attacked it, leaving Moscow aside. Hitler had lost an army of 200,000 men and his last chance of defeating the Soviet Union and winning the war. Today the city is called Volgograd.
Foreign policy of pacifying an aggrieved nation through negotiation in order to prevent war. For example, neither France nor Germany was willing to risk war by standing up to Germany when Hitler violated the Versailles treaty. When he sent troops into the Rhineland, the powers protested but didn't do anything. This, the democracies' weakness, had 3 causes: deep-seated fear of war; fear of communism; and the novelty of fascist tactics.
Battle of Midway
US naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost 4 of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in WWII. Without the aircraft carriers, Japan faced a long and hopeless war.
Town in Egypt, site of the victory by Britain's Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery over German forces led by General Erwin Rommel (the "Desert Fox") in 1942-1943. The British prevailed because they had more weapons and supplies and were better informed about their enemies' plans.
Philosophy of government that stresses the primacy and glory of the state, unquestioning obedience to its leader, subordination of the individual will to the state's authority, and harsh suppression of dissent. Benito Mussolini subscribed to this philosophy.
Italian political party created by Benito Mussolini during WWI. It emphasized aggressive nationalism and was Mussolini's instrument for the creation of a dictatorship in Italy from 1922 to 1943. It glorified warfare and the Italian nation. By 1921, it had 300,000 members and repressed strikes, intimidated voters, and seized municipal governments using violent methods.
Plans that Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state. They succeeded in making the Soviet Union a major industrial power before WWII. This rapid industrialization hastened environmental changes and made the Soviet Union resemble at nation at war, minus actual fighting.
Longest and most severe economic depression ever experienced by the Western world. It began in the U.S. soon after the New York Stock Market Crash of 1929, on "Black Thursday", and lasted until about 1939. Thousands of banks collapsed, consumers reduced their purchases, and businesses cut production, laying off thousands of workers. Women workers were the first to be laid off. Jobless men deserted their families. Small farmers went bankrupt and lost their land. Many observers thought that free-enterprise capitalism was doomed. World trade dropped.
City in Japan, the 1st to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of WWII, killing some 80,000 people in a flash and leaving about 120,000 more to die in agony from burns and radiation.
Nazis' program during WWII to kill people they considered undesirable. Some 6 million Jews perished in it, along with millions of Poles, Gypsies, Communists, Socialists, and others. Mass extermination in the interests of "racial purity".
The 6,000-mile flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek. The 4,000 survivors formed the nucleus of a revived Communist movement that defeated the Guomindang after WWII. They left their place in the Jiangxi Mountains to go to Shaanxi, a remote province.
In September 1931, an explosion on a railroad track, probably staged, gave the Japanese an excuse to conquer the entire province of Manchuria. In Tokyo, weak civilian ministers acquiesced to the attack to avoid losing face. Japan thereupon recognized the "independence" of Manchuria under the name Manchukuo.
US program to support the reconstruction of western Europe after WWII. By 1961 more than $20 billion in economic aid had been dispersed.
Naval base in Hawaii attacked by Japanese aircraft on December 7, 1941. The sinking of much of the US Pacific Fleet brought the US into WWII. However, the Japanese missed the US aircraft carriers because they were at sea.