A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables.
Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study.
A definition that describes the actions or operations that will be made to measure or control a variable.
A research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result.
In an experiment, a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable. (Administer some special treatment to cause change).
In an experiment, the variable that is thought to be affected by the manipulation of the independent variable. (Measure the variable of interest in which we expect to see change).
Subjects in a study who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group.
The repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated.
The collection of subjects selected for observation in a empirical study.
The larger collection of animals or people from which a sample is drawn and that researchers want to generalize about.
A problem that occurs when a sample is not representative of the population from which it is drawn.
The fact that subjects' expectations can lead them to experience some change even though they receive an empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment.
Social Desirability Bias
A tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself.
A phenomenon that occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained.
A descriptive research method in which the researcher engages in careful, usually prolonged, observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects.
A descriptive research method in which researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of subjects' behavior.
An in-depth investigation of an individual subject.
The score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores.
The score that occurs most frequently in a distribution.
The arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution.
Any variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study.
Statistics that are used to organize and summarize data.
Distance of score from each other and from the mean.
Index of variability; how variability is expressed.
Statistics that are used to interpret data and draw conclusions.
Asks the question of, "How likely is it that this result is simply due to chance?"
Formulate a Hypothesis, Design the Study, Collect the Data, Analyze the Data and Draw Conclusions, and Report the Findings.
5 steps of Scientific Investigation