Chapter 45 Hormones & The Endocrine System

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What is the role of a second messenger in hormone action?

it relays a hormone's message inside a target cell

Neurosecretory cells can be found in the _____.

hypothalamus

Since most chemical signals are unable to pass through the plasma membrane, the cellular action they initiate results from _____.

The signal transduction pathway

What did experiments with melanocyte-stimulating hormone, a water-soluble hormone, in the skin cells of frogs reveal about hormone action?

They revealed the role of cell-surface receptors in signal transduction pathways

Ibuprofen is known for its pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties because it inhibits the synthesis of _____.

prostaglandins

Which one of the following endocrine organs does not actually manufacture hormones but, rather, stores hormones produced elsewhere?

posterior pituitary

A doctor might give an expectant mother _____ to stimulate uterine contractions and induce labor.

oxytocin

The regulation of water volume in the blood involves which hormone?

ADH

How does the hypothalamus control the secretion of growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary?

The hypothalamus produces a releasing hormone that stimulates the pituitary to secrete GH.

Hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary?

oxytocin

FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone) are trophic hormones that are also known as _____.

gonadotropins

Which of the following hormones specifically act(s) to trigger secretion of hormones by another endocrine gland?

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Which is a correct statement about prolactin?

It controls fat metabolism and reproduction in birds.

The mammary glands of a pregnant female will begin to produce milk in response to changes in the level of which of the following hormones?

prolactin

The major tropic action of growth hormone is to signal the _____ to release _____.

liver .... insulin-like growth factors

How is the level of thyroxine in the blood regulated?

High levels of T3 and T4 inhibit the secretion of TRH and TSH.

Which disorder is correctly matched with its cause?

pituitary dwarfism ... hyposecretion of growth hormone

Which is a correct statement about the thyroid gland?

Thyroid hormones trigger the change of an aquatic tadpole into a terrestrial bullfrog.

Hyperthyroidism, typically characterized by a high metabolic rate and high blood pressure, might be expected when _____.

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration is high

If a diet is deficient in iodine, a goiter may form because _____.

low blood levels of T3 and T4 inhibit the negative feedback loop. An overload of TSH causes enlargement of the gland.

Every time you eat a cookie or candy bar, your blood sugar increases. This triggers an increase in the hormone _____.

insulin

Which of the following hormones have antagonistic effects?

insulin and glucagon

Which sequence below correctly describes the maintenance of glucose synthesis?

low blood sugar, pancreatic alpha cells stimulated, glucagon released, breakdown of glycogen in target cells

Which of the following hormones has the broadest range of targets?

epinephrine

Which is a true statement about the adrenal medulla?

The gland is stimulated by nerve signals carried from the brain.

Which of the following endocrine glands releases steroid hormones?

adrenal cortex

Which one of the following is a problem with the long-term use of glucocorticoids, such as cortisone, to treat inflammation?

suppression of the immune system

Anabolic steroids, sometimes taken illegally by athletes and bodybuilders, are synthetic substitutes for natural _____ produced in the _____.

androgens ... gonads

In the winter, the _____ of vertebrates is apt to produce _____ than in summer months.

pineal gland ... more melatonin

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