Dynasty founded by Henry VII; includes some of England's most influential monarchs.
Queen Elizabeth 1
Queen of england from 1558 - 1603 english renaissance flourished during her rein.
The family that ruled England after Queen Elizabeth 1 (Tutor) died with no heir, started with James I of Scotland (always feuded with Parliament over debts and money).
First Stuart king of England.
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
Enforced Divine Right. Bring more Absolutist policies to England .Also brought too much Catholic influence. Tried and Executed in 1649 as a "tyrant,traitor, murderer, and public enemy".
Catholic, religious, overthrown by William 3.
William and Mary
King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.
King of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715).
"Peter the Great"
Czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government; he extended his territories in the Baltic and founded St. Petersburg (1682-1725).
Empress of Russia (1762--96), during whose reign Russia extended her boundaries at the expense of Turkey, Sweden, and Poland: she was a patron of literature and the arts.
An autocracy governed by a monarch who usually inherits the authority.
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Monarch enjoyed god given power, nothing but god is higher than the king.
A system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power.
In this type of government everyone, including all authority figures, must obey laws. Constitutions, statements of rights, or other laws define the limits of those in power so they cannot take advantage of the elected, appointed, or inherited positions.
The royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215.
A card game in which you play your sevens and other cards in sequence in the same suit as their sevens.
Petition Of Rights
Limited the power of Charles I of England. a) could not declare martial law; b) could not collect taxes; c) could not imprison people without cause; d) soldiers could not be housed without consent.
A politically organized body of people under a single government.
The body of law imposed by the military over civilian affairs (usually in time of war or civil crisis).
Getting something back again.
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
English Bill of Rights of 1689
English Bill of Rights (1689): Repeats some of early docs (trials and say in taxes), but added right free speech in parliament, to bear arms, no cruel and unusual punishment, and no Catholic king.
A system of governing in which the ruler's power is limited by law.
A government in which no limits are imposed on the ruler's authority. The leaders don't have to follow the same laws as everyone else.
The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime.
Edict of Nantes
1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
British scientist who defined the laws of motion, discovered gravity, experimented with optics, invented differential calculus and wrote "Principia".
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679).
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704).
Baron De Montesqieu
Wrote The Spirit of laws and SEPARATION OF POWERS: power of governmnet sould be divided.
Wrote the declaration of independence.
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy.
The capacity for rational thought or inference or discrimination.
A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.
A rule or body of rules of conduct inherent in human nature and essential to or binding upon human society.
An implicit agreement among people that results in the organization of society.
Declaration of Independence
The document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain.
Member of a group of Enlightenment thinkers who tried to apply the methods of science to the improvement of society.
Separation of Power
The division of a central government into two or more branches, each having its own responsibilities and authorities.
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power.
Notion that democracy depended on unselfish commitment to the public good.
4th President of the United States.
Law determining the fundamental political principles of a government.
Political practices that are followed, but are not part of the actual Constitution. Examples include political parties, judicial review, and the Presidential Cabinet.
A written plan of government that sets forth the structures and powers of government.
A rule that if the state and central government have laws that go against each other, the central government's ruling overrules the state's. It prevents the central and state government from arguing about who is right if they have a law that collides with another.
Make a preliminary introduction, usually to a formal document.
Law that involves the interpretation and application of the U.S. Constitution and state constitutions.
A political system governed by a single individual.
A political system governed by a few people.
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them.