Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals

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can reptiles control their body temperature by burning calories inside themselves- using their metabolism?

NO - reptiles cannot use fuel to adjust body temperature - they must bask in the sun or hide in the shade, etc.

mammalia

mammals: warm-blooded vertebrates by hair, mammary glands in the female, and more

reptilia

reptiles: land vertebrates with dry skin, claws, and an amniotic egg that can be layed on land

how many chambers in most reptile hearts?

three

how many chambers in a crocodilian's heart?

four

testudines

turtles and tortoises

crocodilia

crocodiles and alligators

squamata

Lizards and snakes

sphenodonta

small group of unusual lizards in New Zealand like the tuatara - they have a pineal 'eye'

vertebrate with scaly skin and lungs is a ...

... reptile

vertebrate with hollow bones and a beak is a ...

... bird

gizzard

thick-walled muscular pouch below the crop in many birds and reptiles for grinding food

cerebellum

the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance

marsupial

mammals that feed and carry the young in a pouch on the mother (the marsupium); it contains the teats which supply milk to the young

gestation

growth process from fertilization (conception) to birth

embryo

an animal in the early stages of development - becomes the fetus in more complex vertebrates, becomes the larvae in lower vertebrates (human embryos become fetuses, frog fetuses become tadpoles)

placenta

organ in placental mammals through which nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes are exchanged between embryo and mother - made of both fetal and maternal tissues

monotreme

a mammal that lays eggs - ex: the platypus

placental mammal

mammals having a placenta; all mammals except monotremes and marsupials

canines

pointed teeth that grip, puncture, and tear meat (especially useful in capturing and killing prey)

incisors

chisel shaped and bite off large pieces of food

bicuspids

used for crushing, mashing and grinding - side teeth in your mouth in front of the molars

molars

Large grinding teeth

do all birds have feathers?

yes, all birds have feathers

do all birds have just two legs?

yes, all birds have two legs

Are all birds warm-blooded?

Yes, all birds are warm-blooded

How many chambers in a mammalian heart?

Four chambers

the organ used to control the amount of water in the blood

the kidney

Reptiles reproduce by internal fertilization -

- True - in order to fertilize the egg before the shell is formed, fertilization must be internal

Are reptiles mostly viviparous?

- NO- reptiles cannot keep the developing embryo fed inside the mother because the shell prevents that

the reptiles with a four chambered heart

crocodiles and alligators

functions of feathers

conserve body heat; flight; waterproofing; displaying to mates and rivals

crop

a pouch in many birds and some lower animals before the stomach; used for storing and moistening food

Are birds are cold-blooded

No - birds are endotherms - they make their own body heat

What makes a bird's respiratory system so efficient?

Airflow one-way - so the air in the lungs isn't a mixture of inhaled breath and air about to be exhaled. The bird exhales air through a whole separate tube.

What is the benefit of a four-chamber heart compared to a three chamber heart?

Four chambers allows the heart to keep oxygen-rich blood completely separate from oxygen-poor blood.

carapace

dorsal (upper) part of a turtle shell

plastron

ventral (lower) part of a turtle shell

dinosaur

warm-blooded vertebrates descended from reptiles, some (the carnivorous ones) were ancestors of birds; most of the later carnivorous dinosaurs had feathers while the majority of the herbivores had none

rumen

stomach chamber in cows and related animals in which newly swallowed plant food is stored and processed

a kangaroo is a marsupial

true - a kangaroo is a marsupial mammal

a cow is a placental mammal

true - a mother cow nourishes the fetus with a placenta

Is a wombat is a monotreme?

no - a wombat is a marsupial

Is a koala is a placental mammal

No - a koala is a marsupial

a human being is a placental mammal

true - human fetuses are nourished by a placenta

mammary gland

milk-secreting organ of female mammals

carnivora

order of mammals whose predominant teeth are canines for tearing; includes lions, tigers, bears, foxes, wolves, dogs, cats, raccoons, seals, and walruses

rodentia

rodents; an order of mostly small gnawing mammals including mice, beavers, rats, gerbils

carnivorous animal's tooth used for grabbing and stabbing prey

canine tooth

gnawing animal's tooth often used for slicing plant material like seeds and wood and stems

incisors

teeth excellent for chewing plant material

molars

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