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validate and refine existing knowledge and generate new knowledge that directly and indirectly influences nursing practice.

The primary purpose of nursing research is to:

-Description

A research study describing the benefits of ambulation following cesarean section would be an example of which type of research evidence?

-Control

A research study validates the positive effect that a nursing intervention, patient journaling, has on decreasing spiritual distress during cancer recovery. This would be an example of which type of research evidence?

1. Consumer

A nurse who reads research articles and incorporates research findings into nursing practice would demonstrate which of the following research roles?
1. Consumer
2. Primary investigator
3. Collaborator
4. Producer

2. Data collection and analysis

Florence Nightingale is most noted for which of the following contributions to nursing research?
1. Case study approach to research
2. Data collection and analysis
3. Framework and model development
4. Quasi-experimental study design

-Communication of research findings

A major focus of nursing science during the 1970s was:

-The conduct of clinical research and obtaining increased funding for nursing research.

One major focus of nursing research during the 1980s was:

3. Formation of the National Institute for Nursing Research

Which of the following historical events had a major impact on the funding for nursing research?
1. Development of local, national, and international nursing research conferences by Sigma Theta Tau
2. Initiation of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research
3. Formation of the National Institute for Nursing Research
4. Development of a Nursing Research Council as part of the American Nurses Association

- personal experience

Benner (1984) emphasizes the importance of acquiring clinical knowledge and expertise through:

2. reasoning from a single diabetic patient to all diabetic patients.(specific to the genereal)

An example of inductive reasoning is:
1. reasoning from all chronically ill patients to a single chronically ill patient.
2. reasoning from a single diabetic patient to all diabetic patients.(specific to the genereal)
3. using a standard nursing care plan to care for a specific patient.
4. using a computerized nursing care plan to care for insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

-Quantitative, qualitative, and outcome research methods

Scientific knowledge is generated through:

4. balance each other by generating different types of nursing knowledge.

Quantitative and qualitative research approaches are particularly useful in nursing because they:
1. are easy to implement.
2. require few resources.
3. are both process oriented.
4. balance each other by generating different types of nursing knowledge.

-The result of care or in determining the changes in health status of patient.

Outcomes research in health care is oriented toward establishing:

-Outcomes research

What type of research has a major focus on examining the long- and short-term as well as the negative and positive results of care across a variety of settings?

-Descriptive

A researcher is studying the relationship between age and involvement in social activities. This is what type of research?

-Correlational

The question "Is there a relationship between caffeine intake and intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma?" is an example of:

3. Quasi experimental

Which of the following types of research involve at least some control by the researcher to implement the study treatment?
1. Correlational
2. Descriptive
3. Quasi experimental
4. Experimental

4. Experimental

In which type of research is there high researcher control, random sampling, and laboratory setting?
1. Descriptive
2. Correlational
3. Quasi experimental
4. Experimental

1. Applied research

What category of research is suggested by the following research question?

"Does telephone follow-up by nurses improve patients' compliance with their medication regimens?"

1. Applied research
2. Basic research
3. Practice-related problem solving
4. Quality assurance

1. applied research.

A researcher investigates the effect of frequency of position change on healing of decubitus ulcers. The study would be described as:
1. applied research.
2. basic research.
3. descriptive research.
4. phenomenological research.

3. Natural

7. Applied research seeks to solve a clinical problem in which setting?
1. Controlled
2. Laboratory
3. Natural
4. Simulated

2. control.

A researcher designs a study that uses a random sampling method to decrease the likelihood of bias in the study sample. This strategy was used to implement:
1. manipulation.
2. control.
3. data collection.
4. experimental research.

3. Amount of control and precision exerted by the methodology

Which of the following definitions best describes rigor in quantitative research?
1. Time frame in which the research takes place
2. Degree of aggressiveness used in acquiring the data
3. Amount of control and precision exerted by the methodology
4. Process used to synthesize findings to form conclusions from a study

1. Natural, field

A researcher is interested in studying stress and coping in caregivers of elderly stroke victims. The researcher designs a study where data collection takes place in the caregiver's home. This would be an example of which type of research setting?
1. Natural, field
2. Highly controlled, field
3. Partially controlled, laboratory
4. Highly controlled, laboratory

4. Nursing diagnosis

Problem identification in the research process would be equivalent to which step in the nursing process?
1. Goal identification
2. Data interpretation
3. Identifying solutions
4. Nursing diagnosis

2. Design

The plan in the problem-solving process is equivalent to which step in the research process?
1. Outcomes
2. Design
3. Implementation
4. Goal identification

3. Has a broader focus

The research process differs from the nursing process on which of the following?
1. Identifies new information
2. Involves abstract, critical thinking
3. Has a broader focus
4. Utilizes complex thinking

1. Purpose

Which of the following would identify the specific aim or goal of the study based on the identified problem?
1. Purpose
2. Literature review
3. Methodology
4. Assumptions

-Area of concern in which there is a gap in the knowledge base needed for nursing practice. Research is conducted to generate essential knowledge to address the practice concern with the ultimate goal of providing evidence based practice.

A research problem is defined as a(n):

2. Subjects are able to identify a personal awareness of QOL.

Research subjects in a study of quality of life (QOL) in liver transplant recipients were asked to complete a questionnaire about their experiences following transplantation. Which of the following would be a likely assumption the researcher made in relation to this study?
1. Subjects will complete every item on the questionnaire.
2. Subjects are able to identify a personal awareness of QOL.
3. All liver transplant recipients invited to participate in the study will complete a questionnaire.
4. QOL is an important issue to liver transplant recipients.

3. pilot study.

Before implementing a large, multisite research investigation, a researcher conducts a smaller study of the planned study to identify any problematic areas. This smaller study is known as a(n):
1. abstract.
2. exploratory design.
3. pilot study.
4. proposal.

- abstracts

The researcher uses which portion of the research report to capture the reader's attention?

- introduction

The sentence "The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between health beliefs and breast self-examination" would most likely be found in which section of a research report?

2. identifying the research problem.

The initial and one of the most significant steps in conducting the research process is:
1. defining the research variables.
2. identifying the research problem.
3. stating the research purpose.
4. determining the feasibility of the study.

3. Population (and setting)

The purpose statement should identify the study variable(s) and what other key aspect of the study?
1. Design
2. Measurement tools
3. Population (and setting)
4. Statistics

1. nursing practice.

One important source for identification of a research problem would be:
1. nursing practice.
2. research textbook.
3. nursing code of ethics.
4. practice guidelines.

2. builds on previous research.

In the literature report of a study on quality of life, the researcher describes two previous investigations suggesting that spirituality is related to quality of life. This information suggests the current study is significant because it:
1. influences theology.
2. builds on previous research.
3. challenges existing theory.
4. addresses multidisciplinary concerns.

3. Availability of subjects

Feasibility is determined by examining which of the following?
1. Researcher's credibility
2. Significance of research problem
3. Availability of subjects
4. Previous studies

4. Feasibility (ethical considerations part of feasibility)

In a research proposal, the investigator notes that written permission has been obtained from three local hospitals to access patients for the proposed study. This is an example of what aspect of a study?
1. Reliability
2. Methodology
3. Ethics
4. Feasibility (ethical considerations part of feasibility)

1. predicts the expected results or outcomes of the study.

A research hypothesis:
1. predicts the expected results or outcomes of the study.
2. defines the theoretical framework for the study.
3. identifies the source of the problem under study.
4. clarifies the concepts used in the study.

1. Objective

The statement "This study explores the experience of caregiving by adult daughters of parents with Alzheimer disease" is an example of which of the following?
1. Objective
2. Question
3. Simple hypothesis
4. Complex hypothesis

4. Simple, directional

What type of hypothesis is the following?

"Normal saline flush with heparin is more effective than normal saline flush alone in maintaining patency of an intermittent intravenous site."

1. Simple, research
2. Complex, nondirectional
3. Complex, causal
4. Simple, directional

- description of variabless or concepts, examination of relationships among variables, and determination of differences between two or more groups regarding selected variables.

A research question focuses on:

1. Complex, directional hypothesis

What type of hypothesis is the following?

"Cancer patients who receive music therapy complain less frequently of pain and require less pain medication than cancer patients not receiving music therapy."

1. Complex, directional hypothesis
2. Simple, associative hypothesis
3. Simple, nondirectional hypothesis
4. Complex, null hypothesis

2. Complex, directional, associative

What type of hypothesis is the following?

"Low-fat diet is related to lower total cholesterol and higher HDL (high-density lipoprotein)."

1. Complex, directional, causal (3 variables)
2. Complex, directional, associative
3. Simple, nondirectional, research
4. Simple, directional, causal

4. the response or outcome that the researcher wants to understand.

The dependent variable is:
1. a stimulus or activity that is varied by the researcher.
2. the quality, property, or characteristic identified in the problem.
3. a characteristic or element of the human subjects involved in the study.
4. the response or outcome that the researcher wants to understand.

4. Music therapy

Identify the independent variable in the following hypothesis:

"Cancer patients who receive music therapy complain less frequently of pain and require less pain medication than cancer patients not receiving music therapy."

1. Relaxation therapy
2. Complaints of pain
3. Pain medication use
4. Music therapy

2. dependent variable.

"Structured preoperative support is more effective in reducing surgical patients' perception of pain and request for analgesics than structured postoperative support."

15. "Request for analgesics" is the:
1. independent variable.
2. dependent variable.
3. attribute variable.
4. extraneous variable.

2. dependent variable.

"Structured preoperative support is more effective in reducing surgical patients' perception of pain and request for analgesics than structured postoperative support."

"Perception of pain" is the:
1. independent variable.
2. dependent variable.
3. attribute variable.
4. extraneous variable.

1. independent variable.

"Structured preoperative support is more effective in reducing surgical patients' perception of pain and request for analgesics than structured postoperative support."

"Type of support" is the:
1. independent variable.
2. dependent variable.
3. attribute variable.
4. extraneous variable.

3. complex, directional, research.

"Structured preoperative support is more effective in reducing surgical patients' perception of pain and request for analgesics than structured postoperative support."

This hypothesis is:
1. simple, directional, research.
2. complex, nondirectional, null.
3. complex, directional, research.
4. simple, nondirectional, statistical.

4. Operational definition

The statement below is an example of which of the following?

"In this study, pain is reflected as a score between 0 and 10 on the Post-operative Pain Rating Scale."

1. Problem statement
2. Conceptual definition
3. Associative hypothesis
4. Operational definition

1. Literature review

In which section of the research report might the problem statement be located?
1. Literature review
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Implications

1. Empirical literature

The literature review section of a research report might include a summary of which of the following?
1. Empirical literature
2. Funding sources
3. Proposed methods and design
4. Description of study sample

2. A report of a study written by the researcher who did the study

Which of the following represents a primary source?
1. The results of a computer search related to the primary topic of interest
2. A report of a study written by the researcher who did the study
3. A published summary of the relevant research in a primary care area
4. A thesaurus that identifies key words to use in a computer search

4. Depends on the type of study

At what point is the literature review conducted in a qualitative investigation?
1. Prior to study implementation
2. During study implementation
3. After study completion (otherwise it will influence the researchers openness)
4. Depends on the type of study

3. Approaches used to investigate similar problems

Which of the following types of information is consistently covered in a quantitative literature review?
1. Descriptions of effective clinical outcomes
2. Anecdotal opinions of expert researchers
3. Approaches used to investigate similar problems
4. Clinical impressions of related phenomena

2. delineate the existing knowledge base of an identified problem.

The primary purpose for reviewing relevant literature is to:
1. select the research design.
2. delineate the existing knowledge base of an identified problem.
3. interpret previous research findings.
4. develop conceptual and operational definitions of variables.

2. an academic library.

A crucial resource for researchers conducting a literature review would be:
1. a secondary source.
2. an academic library.
3. lay literature.
4. a research mentor.

3. Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature

Which of the following indexes would provide the largest number of relevant nursing sources?
1. International Nursing Index
2. Nursing Studies Index
3. Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature
4. Index Medicus

3. keywords.

A critical aspect of beginning a database search for relevant literature on a topic of interest involves identifying:
1. reference management software.
2. electronic journals.
3. keywords.
4. existing knowledge.

1. Volume number

In the following APA formatted reference, what does the 21 refer to?

Harris, R. M., Bausell, R. B., Scott, D. E.,
Hetherington, S. E., & Kavanagh, K. H. (1998). An intervention for changing high-risk HIV behaviors of African American drug-dependent women. Research in Nursing and Health, 21(3), pp. 239-250.

1. Volume number
2. Issue number
3. Chapter number
4. Bibliographic reference

1. previous research findings have been synthesized.

One advantage of an integrative review of research is that:
1. previous research findings have been synthesized.
2. multidisciplinary literature has been filtered out.
3. emphasis is placed on what is not known.
4. statistical analyses of the summarized research are conducted.

4. researcher's "theory" or idea about the study.

A study framework reflects the:
1. blueprint for the study.
2. specific plan for data collection.
3. data analysis strategy.
4. researcher's "theory" or idea about the study.

3. Prediction

A researcher theorizes that walking three times per week will minimize the likelihood of premature labor in at-risk pregnant women. The researcher initiates a research program to test this theory. This research study is attempting to validate what aspect of theory?
1. Development
2. Explanation
3. Prediction
4. Strategies for controlling outcomes

4. Theories are constructed by people and are tentative in nature.

Which of the following is true about theoretical frameworks used in research?
1. Theories offer precise guidance in all situations.
2. Theories prove how concepts are related to one another.
3. Theories represent ultimate truth and are congruent with reality.
4. Theories are constructed by people and are tentative in nature.

2. not well-defined and general.

"Abstract" is defined in research as:
1. particular and realistic.
2. not well-defined and general.
3. well-defined and precise.
4. concrete and specific.

1. The framework and hypotheses must be congruent with each other.

Which of the following is true about the relationship between a study framework and the hypotheses?
1. The framework and hypotheses must be congruent with each other.
2. The hypotheses are not meant to be testable, but the framework is.
3. If the hypotheses are stated, the researcher does not need to have a framework.
4. Hypotheses are inductively identified within the stated framework.

3. often must be inferred by the reader from the text of the report.

The framework and conceptual map for a study:
1. are always included in the study report.
2. are usually clearly identified in the report.
3. often must be inferred by the reader from the text of the report.
4. should be referred to only at the end of the study.

1. Variable

Which of the following represents the most concrete term?
1. Variable
2. Concept
3. Framework
4. Construct

1. the meanings of terms may differ depending on the study framework.

Conceptual definitions are important because:
1. the meanings of terms may differ depending on the study framework.
2. they tell others how the concept will be measured in the study.
3. they provide a dictionary definition that can be understood by everyone.
4. they suggest how to precisely measure the variables of interest.

3. may be implied.

In the research report, a theoretical statement:
1. will always be clearly identified.
2. should only be discussed in the framework section.
3. may be implied.
4. can be omitted if variables are not yet well defined.

2. Type of dressing ---------> skin changes

Which relationship diagram below best represents the following hypothesis?

"Conventional gauze dressings cause fewer
skin changes in wound sites than do
hydrocolloid or hydroactive dressings."

1. Gauze dressing ----------> skin changes
2. Type of dressing ---------> skin changes
3. Type of dressing <---------> wound site
4. Gauze dressing <--------- wound site

3. Pain perception and anxiety are positively related to one another.

Which of the following responses best describes the relational statement that is diagrammed below?

Pain perception <------- (+) --------> Anxiety

1. Increased perception of pain causes anxiety.
2. Anxiety causes increased pain perception.
3. Pain perception and anxiety are positively related to one another.
4. Pain perception and anxiety are inversely related.

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