Chapter 11 Study Guide Mendelian Patterns of Inheritance

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44 terms · This study guide is based off of Biology by Sylvia Mader 10th edition. The chapter is number 11 titled Mendelian Patterns of Inheritance. In the learn based tool, prompt with term and copy the "whole" answer and paste it into the answer box.

The location on a chromosome where a particular gene is located is known as the:
A. allele
B. dihybrid
C. locus
D. diploid
E. autosome

C. locus

Which of the following is NOT a trait that is the result of, or is affected by, the interaction of more
than one gene?
A. human skin color
B. cleft palate
C. height
D. sickle cell anemia

D. sickle cell anemia

Which of the following crosses would always result in offspring that only display the dominant
phenotype?
A. TT x tt
B. Tt x Tt
C. TT x TT
D. Tt x tt
E. both A and C

E. both A and C

What aspect of Mendel's background gave him the necessary tools to discover the laws of
inheritance?
A. He was a monk.
B. He was a teacher.
C. He lived in Austria.
D. He had studied mathematics and probability.
E. He corresponded with Charles
Darwin.

D. He had studied mathematics and probability.

What is the blending theory of inheritance?
A. Mendel's theory of how the traits of parents are passed to offspring through the
gametes
B. Darwin's theory of how traits are passed from all parts of the parent's body into the gamete to
be transmitted to the offspring
C. the modern theory of how genetic information is passed from parents to
offspring
D. an old theory that said that offspring show traits intermediate between those of the
parents

D. an old theory that said that offspring show traits intermediate between those of the
parents

Which characteristic of pea plants were important in their selection as Mendel's research
organism?
A. Peas are easy to cultivate.
B. Pea plants have a short generation time.
C. Pea plants are self-pollinating but can be cross-fertilized
easily.
D. Many true-breeding varieties were available.
E. All of the above were important characteristics in Mendel's
selection.

E. All of the above were important characteristics in Mendel's
selection.

In a classic Mendelian monohybrid cross between a homozygous dominant parent and a
homozygous recessive parent, which generation is always completely heterozygous?
A. F1 generation
B. F2 generation
C. F3 generation
D. P generation

A. F1 generation

If a pea plant shows a recessive phenotype,
A. the genotype may be TT or Tt.
B. the genotype may be Tt or tt.
C. the genotype can only be TT.
D. the genotype can only be tt.
E. the genotype may be TT, Tt, or tt.

D. the genotype can only be tt.

Women with X-linked disorders always pass the genes for the disorder to _____, while men with
X-linked disorders always pass the genes for the disorder to ______.
A. only their daughters; only their daughters
B. both their daughters and sons; only their sons
C. both their daughters and sons; only their
daughters
D. both their daughters and sons; their daughters and sons

C. both their daughters and sons; only their
daughters

Generally, it is not possible to determine whether nondisjunction failed to occur in oogenesis or
spermatogenesis. However, it is possible to assert that _________ resulted in nondisjunction in
_________.
A. XXY; oogenesis
B. XYY; spermatogenesis
C. XXX; oogenesis
D. XXY; spermatogenesis
E. XO; oogenesis

B. XYY; spermatogenesis

The F2 offspring of a classic Mendelian monohybrid cross between homozygous dominant and
homozygous recessive parents would produce the genotype(s)
A. AA and Aa.
B. Aa and aa.
C. AA, Aa, and aa.
D. AA only.
E. Aa only.

C. AA, Aa, and aa.

The offspring of a monohybrid testcross would have what possible genotype(s)?
A. AA and Aa.
B. Aa and aa.
C. AA, Aa, and aa.
D. AA only.
E. aa only.

B. Aa and aa.

What are alleles?
A. genes for different traits, such as hair color or eye color
B. alternative forms of a gene for a single trait, such as blue eyes or brown eyes
C. the locations of genes on a chromosome
D. recessive forms of a kind of characteristic carried by genes
E. dominant forms of a kind of characteristic carried by genes

B. alternative forms of a gene for a single trait, such as blue eyes or brown eyes

If an individual with a dominant phenotype is crossed with an individual with a recessive
phenotype, 4 of their 9 offspring show the recessive phenotype. What is the genotype of the first
parent?
A. AA
B. Aa
C. aa
D. The answer cannot be determined from this
information.

B. Aa

Which is NOT true according to Mendel's law of segregation?
A. Each individual contains two factors for each trait.
B. One factor must be dominant and one factor recessive in each individual.
C. Factors separate from each other during gamete
formation.
D. Each gamete contains one copy of each factor.
E. Fertilization restores the presence of two
factors.

B. One factor must be dominant and one factor recessive in each individual.

Some plants fail to produce chlorophyll, and this trait appears to be recessive. Many plants also
self-pollinate. If we locate a pea plant that is heterozygous for this trait, self-pollinate it and
harvest seeds, what are the likely phenotypes of these seeds when they germinate?
A. All will be green with chlorophyll since that is the dominant trait.
B. All will be white and lack chlorophyll since this is self-pollinated.
C. About one-half will be green and one-half white since that is the distribution of the genes in the
parents.
D. About one-fourth will be white and three-fourths green since it is similar to a monohybrid cross between heterozygotes.
E. About one-fourth will be green and three-fourths white since it is similar to a monohybrid cross
between heterozygotes.

D. About one-fourth will be white and three-fourths green since it is similar to a monohybrid cross between heterozygotes.

The most common lethal genetic disease among Caucasians is
A. neurofibromatosis.
B. Tay-Sachs disease.
C. phenylketonuria.
D. albinism.
E. cystic fibrosis.

E. cystic fibrosis.

The pedigree chart depicts the inheritance pattern of ___. Circles depict females and squares to
depict males. Colored shape represent affected individuals (expressing a trait) and uncolored
shapes are unaffected (do not express a trait).
A. an autosomal recessive characteristic with both parents being heterozygous
B. an autosomal dominant characteristic with both parents being homozygous dominant
C. an autosomal recessive characteristic with both parents being homozygous recessive
D. none of the above

A. an autosomal recessive characteristic with both parents being heterozygous

If the parents are AO and BO genotypes for the ABO blood group, their children could include
which of the following genotypes?
A. AO and BO only
B. AO, BO, and AB only
C. AA, BB, and AB only
D. AO, BO, and OO only
E. AO, BO, AB, and OO only

E. AO, BO, AB, and OO only

Haiti is settled by peoples of both African and European ancestry. A young couple, both with
mixed ancestry, marry and have several children. The children vary widely in the amount of skin
melanin production, with one child being lighter than both parent, and one being darker. The
simple explanation for this is
A. epistasis.
B. multiple alleles are available for the one chromosomal locus that governs skin color.
C. the environment affected the phenotype that
developed.
D. polygenic inheritance.
E. gene linkage.

D. polygenic inheritance.

Lethal genes (genes that result in the failure to develop a vital organ or metabolic pathway) are
nearly always recessive. Animal breeders who discover a unique trait and selectively breed to
increase the occurrence of that trait often encounter a noticeable increase in lethal genes. Why?
A. The lethal recessive gene may be incompletely
dominant.
B. Spreading the gene among offspring of both sexes will increase the likelihood it will be sexlinked
and expressed.
C. The selective-mating of closely related individuals, or inbreeding, increases chances that two recessive genes will "meet" in offspring.
D. "Pleiotropy" - the gene that is being selected for this trait may have the second effect of being
lethal.
E. "Epistasis" - selection for the desired trait may result in "uncovering" the lethal gene.

C. The selective-mating of closely related individuals, or inbreeding, increases chances that two recessive genes will "meet" in offspring.

Unattached earlobes (EE or Ee) are described in the textbook as dominant over attached
earlobes (ee). A couple both have unattached earlobes. Both notice that one of their parents on
both sides has attached earlobes (ee). Therefore, they correctly assume that they are carriers for
attached earlobes (Ee). The couple proceeds to have four children.
A. They can be certain that three will be heterozygous and one homozygous recessive.
B. If the first three are heterozygous, the fourth must be homozygous recessive.
C. The children must repeat the grandparents' genotype (Ee).
D. All children must have unattached earlobes since both parents possess the dominant gene for it.
E. Two heterozygous, one homozygous recessive and one homozygous dominant is a likely
outcome, but all heterozygous, or two, three or all four homozygous are also possible.

E. Two heterozygous, one homozygous recessive and one homozygous dominant is a likely
outcome, but all heterozygous, or two, three or all four homozygous are also possible.

In 1940, two researchers named Weiner and Landsteiner discovered that about 85 percent of the
human population sampled possessed a blood cell protein that had been previously detected in
Rhesus monkeys. This blood type was labeled Rh positive, and Rh+ was found to be dominant
over the absence of the blood factor (Rh). Under normal Mendelian inheritance, which of the
following statements is FALSE?
A. Two Rh+ parents could have an Rh- child.
B. Two Rh- parents could have an Rh+ child.
C. An Rh- child would require that both parents be carriers of at least one Rh- gene.
D. It is possible with just one pair of parents to have children where some siblings are Rh- and some are Rh+.
E. All of the choices are false.

B. Two Rh- parents could have an Rh+ child.

Since each child of two heterozygous parents has a 1/2 chance of receiving a recessive trait from
each parent,
A. if the first child is phenotypically recessive, then the next child must be phenotypically dominant.
B. if the first child is phenotypically recessive, then the next child has a 3/4 chance of being phenotypically recessive.
C. if the first child is phenotypically recessive, then the next child has a 1/2 chance of being phenotypically recessive.
D. no matter what the first child's phenotype, the next child will have a 1/4 chance of being phenotypically recessive.

D. no matter what the first child's phenotype, the next child will have a 1/4 chance of being phenotypically recessive.

The ability to roll the edges of the tongue upward in a U-shape has been considered to be an
inherited ability. The standard assumption is that tongue-rolling is a dominant allele at a single
gene locus. Which of the following would cast doubt on this assumption?
A. A teacher reports that after testing her class on the ability to roll their tongue, with very little
effort the non-tongue-rollers can learn to also roll their tongues.
B. A student who can roll his tongue has a mother and father, both of whom cannot.
C. A student who cannot roll his tongue has a mother and father, both of whom can.
D. Both A and B are situations that would cast doubt on this assumption.

D. Both A and B are situations that would cast doubt on this assumption.

If the probability of event A is 3/4 and the probability of event B is 1/4, then the probability of both
A and B occurring at the same time is
A. 3/4.
B. 1/4.
C. 1 or absolute certainty.
D. 1/2.
E. 3/16.

E. 3/16.

The water buttercup produces thin leaves underwater, but those same tissues will produce broad leaves above the water. Individuals in the 1800's (when hunger and childhood diseases were
common) averaged slightly over five feet tall, but their offspring in the 1900's were substantially
taller on the average. This reflects the influence of
A. polygenic inheritance.
B. epistasis.
C. gene linkage.
D. genotype having no relationship to phenotype.
E. environmental factors on gene
expression

E. environmental factors on gene
expression

Computer simulations are sometimes used to demonstrate the outcome of monohybrid fruit fly
crosses, where a student can run generation after generation of fruit flies with 100 offspring
produced each generation, half male and half female, and a 3-to-1 phenotype ratio (or 75 to 25)
in the F1 generation. Compared with real genetics results,
A. rarely would exactly 100 fly offspring be produced or survive.
B. an exact balance between males and females would be rare.
C. a precise 3-to-1 ratio would be uncommon.
D. All of the choices are true.

D. All of the choices are true.

In what kind of classic Mendelian cross would you expect to find a ratio of 9:3:3:1 among the F2
offspring?
A. monohybrid cross
B. dihybrid cross
C. testcross
D. None of the choices is correct.

B. dihybrid cross

If a woman is a carrier for the color-blind recessive allele and her husband is normal, what are
their chances that a son will be color-blind?
A. None since the father is normal.
B. 50% since the mother is the only carrier.
C. 100% because the mother has the gene.
D. 25% because the mother is a hybrid.
E. None since he will also be just a
carrier.

B. 50% since the mother is the only carrier.

In pea plants, the gene for round seed (R) is dominant, and wrinkled seeds (r) are recessive. The
endosperm of the pea is also either starchy, a dominant gene (S), or waxy (s). What can be said
of a fully heterozygous, dihybrid cross?
A. It is impossible to secure offspring that are homozygous for both dominant genes.
B. It is impossible to secure offspring that are homozygous for both recessive genes.
C. It is impossible to secure offspring that are homozygous for one dominant gene such as round
seed and homozygous recessive for the other recessive waxy gene.
D. All of these choices are impossible combinations in a dihybrid cross.
E. All of these choices are possible combinations in a dihybrid cross.

E. All of these choices are possible combinations in a dihybrid cross.

A testcross involves an individual exhibiting the dominant phenotype but an unknown genotype
being crossed with an individual that has a(n) ___________ genotype.
A. homozygous
dominant
B. heterozygous
dominant
C. homozygous recessive
D. any of the choices

C. homozygous recessive

If individuals exhibiting a dominant phenotype are crossed and produce only offspring with the
dominant phenotype, what would be the logical genotype of the parents?
A. both are homozygous recessive
B. one is heterozygous and one is homozygous
dominant
C. both are homozygous dominant
D. both are heterozygous
E. both B and C

E. both B and C

In the use of a Punnett square for genetic results of crossing individuals
A. all different kinds of sperm are lined up either horizontally or vertically.
B. all different kinds of eggs are lined up either horizontally or vertically.
C. the results show the offspring's expected genotypes.
D. All of the choices are correct
E. A and B only.

D. All of the choices are correct

If a human who is a tongue roller (T) and has unattached ear lobes (E) marries a person who
cannot roll their tongue and has attached earlobes, could they produce an offspring that was also
a non-tongue roller with attached earlobes? What would be the genotype of the first parent? the
second parent?
A. yes; TtEe; ttee
B. yes; TtEE; ttEe
C. no; TTEE; ttee
D. unable to determine from the information given

A. yes; TtEe; ttee

The particulate theory of inheritance
A. preceded Mendel's research by a
century.
B. was proposed by
Mendel.
C. is based on particles or hereditary units we now call
genes.
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. B and C only

E. B and C only

As many as 60 % of people in malaria-infected regions of Africa have the sickle-cell allele, but
only about 10% of the U.S. population of African ancestry carries the allele. Malaria remains a
major disease in central Africa but has not been a serious problem in the U.S. for many
generations. What is/are the reason(s) for the difference in the percentages and what is a
reasonable statement about future percentages?
A. The presence of malaria in Africa maintains the advantage of the heterozygous sickle-cell trait,
and the prevalence of malaria will likely continue to preserve the 60% rate.
B. The U. S. percentage may have always been somewhat lower due to immigration from
nonmalaria regions, but changes in sites and rates of immigration could occur.
C. Lack of widespread malaria in the United States would have made both homozygous and
heterozygous carriers of sickle-cell undergo several generations of negative selection, and we
should expect this to continue unless innovative therapies give all individuals an equal chance
of surviving and reproducing.
D. All of the choices are reasonable.

D. All of the choices are reasonable.

Which is associated with the inability to produce factor VIII in the blood?
A. Williams syndrome
B. trisomy 21
C. color-blindness
D. Hemophilia A
E. Duchenne muscular dystrophy

D. Hemophilia A

When crossing a true-breeding red snapdragon flower with a true-breeding white flower of the
same species, we secure all pink offspring. This would seem to support the pre-Mendel view that
inheritance is a blending of parental traits. However, Mendel and conventional wisdom agree that
"blending" of parental traits is not correct and that particles of inheritance are actually involved
because
A. in the case of incomplete dominance, only radioactive isotope tracers can follow the actual
hereditary particles
B. under blending theory, over many generations only the average (or pink flowers) would
remain; there would be no way to get back to pure red and white
C. it is possible to cross the pink F-1 generation and secure a predictable proportion of pure red
and white flowers again, which is not accounted for under the blending theory
D. there is no way to directly prove incomplete dominance is not a case of blending, but we can
be sure of genes because of the other cases of dominance, etc., where genes are the only
logical explanation.
E. B and C are true

E. B and C are true

Cystic fibrosis and Niemann-Pick Disease are common autosomal dominant disorders.
True False

False

In a case of incomplete dominance, the phenotypic ratio of the F2 generation is the same as the
genotypic ratio.
True False

True

Each gamete carries one factor, now called an allele, for each inherited trait.
True False

True

If an individual is heterozygous for a particular trait, the gametes that individual produces will
contain 3/4 dominant and 1/4 recessive alleles.
True False

False

Polygenic traits such as height or weight are often influenced by the environment of the
organism.
True False

True

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