Renal Practice ?s

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The urinary system includes all but which of the following?

a. ureters
b. urinary bladder
c. adrenal glands
d. urethra
e. kidneys

c. adrenal glands

The glomerulus is made up of many

a. venules.
b. fenestrated capillaries.
c. sinusoids.
d. arterioles.
e. A and C.

b. fenestrated capillaries.

The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________.

a. has a blood pressure much lower than other organ systems

b. is impermeable to most substances

c. has a basement membrane

d. is drained by an efferent arteriole

d. is drained by an efferent arteriole

An obstruction in the glomerulus would affect the flow of blood into the

a. lobular vein.
b. renal artery.
c. intralobular artery.
d. afferent arteriole.
e. efferent arteriole.

e. efferent arteriole.

Which area of the renal tubule contains the most dense microvilli?

a. PCT
b. DCT
c. CD
d. loop of Henle
e. none of the above

a. PCT

glomerulus

small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of a nephron; where the filtration of blood takes place

In juxtamedullary nephrons, the efferent arterioles and peritubular capillaries are connected to a long, slender series of capillaries that accompany the loops of Henle into the medulla. These are (the)

a. segmental arteries.
b. vasa recta.
c. interlobular veins.
d. arcuate arteries.
e. none of the above.

b. vasa recta.

About 15 percent of the nephrons are classified as

a. renal.
b. cortical.
c. medullary.
d. juxtamedullary.
e. none of the above.

d. juxtamedullary

Blood enters the nephron via the

lobar artery.
renal artery.
afferent arteriole.
segmental artery.
efferent arteriole.

segmental artery.

A glomerulus

a. occurs in the loop of Henle.

b. filters urine just prior to its exit from the kidney.

c. is a portion of the proximal convoluted tubule.

d. is a capillary knot contained within the renal corpuscle.

e. is or does none of the above.

d. is a capillary knot contained within the renal corpuscle.

The large passageway into which the major calyces empty is the

minor calyx.
renal medulla.
renal cortex.
renal calyx.
renal pelvis.

renal pelvis.

The glomerular capsule and the glomerulus make up the

renal corpuscle.
loop of Henle.
renal papilla.
renal pyramid.
juxtaglomerular apparatus.

renal corpuscle.

The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for ________.

a. reabsorption of organic molecules, vitamins, and water

b. the secretion of acids and ammonia

c. the secretion of drugs

d. regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure

d. regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure

Kidneys are often difficult to see without dissection because they are surrounded by a layer of fat. What is the significance of this fat?

a. It expands for storage of additional urine once the bladder is full; it acts as a sponge.

b. There is no special significance; this fat stores energy as do other fat deposits in the abdominal cavity.

c. It provides cushioning or padding for protection from sudden jolts or other injuries.

d. This fat cools the kidneys during active filtration.


e. A and D are correct.

c. It provides cushioning or padding for protection from sudden jolts or other injuries.

Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.

1. major calyx
2. minor calyx
3. nephron
4. urethra
5. ureter
6. collecting duct

6, 3, 2, 1, 5, 4
3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4
3, 1, 2, 6, 5, 4
2, 1, 3, 6, 5, 4

dont know

The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________.

a. hormones
b. glucose
c. electrolytes
d. plasma protein

d. plasma protein

What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?


a. help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

b. help regulate urea absorption by the kidneys

c. help regulate blood pressure and the rate of excretion by the kidneys

d. help regulate water and electrolyte excretion by the kidneys

a. help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

Choose the statement that does not correctly characterize the kidneys.
A) The kidneys are positioned retroperitoneally.
B) The right kidney is usually 1.5 to 2 centimeters higher than the left one.
C) The kidney is padded by a layer of fat.
D) Inside the kidney there is a hollow chamber called the renal sinus.

B) The right kidney is usually 1.5 to 2 centimeters higher than the left one.

The granular appearance of the renal cortex is due to ________________.
A) the positioning of blood vessels within this area
B) polycystic kidney disease
C) the random distribution of nephrons in this area
D) the positioning of the renal columns

C) the random distribution of nephrons in this area

Which of these is not a function of the kidneys?
A) The kidneys deactivate vitamin D and stimulate the activity of osteoclasts.
B) The kidneys help control the rate of red blood cell production.
C) The kidneys help to regulate blood pressure.
D) The kidneys regulate the composition, volume, and pH of body fluids.

A) The kidneys deactivate vitamin D and stimulate the activity of osteoclasts.

The final branches of the interlobular arteries give rise to the _________________ that carry blood to the nephrons.
A) interlobar arteries
B) arciform arteries
C) efferent arterioles
D) afferent arterioles

D) afferent arterioles

Choose the one trait that does not characterize the structure of a nephron.
A) There are two coiled portions of the renal tubule.
B) The glomerular capsule contains podocytes and slit pores.
C) Blood that will be filtered flows into the glomerular capsule.
D) Several nephron tubules merge to form a collecting duct.

C) Blood that will be filtered flows into the glomerular capsule.

The concentrations of substances in the plasma, in the glomerular filtrate, and in urine differ in what way?
A) Plasma contains the most water, glomerular filtrate contains less water, and urine contains the least.
B) Plasma and glomerular filtrate are virtually identical, but urine contains proportionately more waste products.
C) Plasma differs from glomerular filtrate and urine, which have virtually identical concentrations of substances.
D) All three have the same concentrations of nutrients and waste materials, but differ in the amount of proteinaceous material they contain.

B) Plasma and glomerular filtrate are virtually identical, but urine contains proportionately more waste products.

Which force favors filtration?
A) glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure
B) capsular hydrostatic pressure
C) glomerular capillary osmotic pressure
D) capsular osmotic pressure

A) glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure

Which factor does not affect glomerular filtration rate?
A) blood pressure
B) osmotic pressure of the glomerular filtrate
C) plasma osmotic pressure
D) concentration of leukocytes in the blood

D) concentration of leukocytes in the blood

Juxtaglomerular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus secrete _______________ when _______________.
A) angiotensin-converting enzyme; blood pressure increases
B) potassium; chloride concentration declines
C) renin; blood pressure drops
D) atrial natriuretic peptide; blood volume drops

C) renin; blood pressure drops

Tubular reabsorption is responsible for retaining nutrients the body requires. Most tubular reabsorption occurs in the _______________ where microvilli, and their numerous carrier proteins, increase the surface area available for reabsorption.
A) distal convoluted tubule
B) proximal convoluted tubule
C) collecting duct
D) nephron loop

B) proximal convoluted tubule

Most small proteins are reabsorbed by _______________.
A) active transport
B) osmosis
C) facilitated diffusion
D) pinocytosis

D) pinocytosis

Within the renal tubule, two hormones play a role in determining the final volume and sodium concentration of the urine. The hormone _______________ regulates sodium reabsorption, while ________________ regulates water reabsorption.
A) aldosterone; antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
B) cortisol; atrial natriuretic peptide
C) renin; angiotensin II
D) antidiuretic hormone (ADH); epinephrine

A) aldosterone; antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Peristaltic muscular contractions are important for conveying urine through the excretory system, much like peristalsis in the digestive tract. Peristalsis of the detrusor muscle of the urinary bladder is controlled by ______________.
A) conscious control of the skeletal muscle
B) sympathetic nervous impulses
C) parasympathetic nervous impulses
D) impulses from the cerebral cortex

C) parasympathetic nervous impulses

In males as well as in females, the external urethral sphincter is made up of skeletal muscle, and is thus under voluntary control. Where is the external urethral sphincter located in males?
A) within the urogenital diaphragm
B) within the penile urethra
C) at the external urethral orifice
D) within the prostatic urethra

A) within the urogenital diaphragm

Which structure is last in the sequence of urine flow?
A) ureter
B) kidney
C) bladder
D) urethra

D) urethra

The outermost structure of a kidney is the _____.
A) cortex
B) medulla
C) capsule
D) pelvis

C) capsule

What is the main factor that causes urine to enter the urinary bladder?
A) pressure
B) peristalsis
C) gravity
D) osmosis

B) peristalsis

What is the main factor that promotes bladder infections in the female?
A) length of urethra
B) presence of bacteria in rectum
C) hygiene
D) dietary factors

A) length of urethra

Which system functions in the excretion of soluble nitrogenous wastes?
A) gastrointestinal
B) pulmonary
C) urinary
D) integumentary

C) urinary

The pyramids are areas located within the _____ of the kidney.
A) cortex
B) pelvis
C) capsule
D) medulla

D) medulla

The ureter directly receives urine from the _____ of the kidney.
A) cortex
B) pelvis
C) medulla
D) pyramid

B) pelvis

The structure which receives the filtrate from the glomerulus is the _____.
A) proximal convoluted tubule
B) distal convoluted tubule
C) Bowman capsule
D) loop of Henle

C) Bowman capsule

Which vessel directs blood into the glomerulus?
A) renal artery
B) afferent arteriole
C) efferent arteriole
D) peritubular capillaries

B) afferent arteriole

In which area can the term urine be correctly used?
A) Bowman's capsule
B) collecting duct
C) nephron
D) loop of Henle

B) collecting duct

Where does most selective reabsorption occur?
A) loop of Henle
B) glomerulus
C) distal convoluted tubule
D) proximal convoluted tubule

D) proximal convoluted tubule

1) The thick ascending limb of the nephron loop (loop of Henle) is almost impermeable to water, but reabsorbs sodium, potassium, and chloride ions from the filtrate).

A) The first statement is true but the second statement is false.
B) The first statement is false but the second statement is true.
C) Both statements are true. D) Both statements are false.
E) Both are true and relate to production of a dilute urine.

E) Both are true and relate to production of a dilute urine.

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?

A) relies on countercurrent multiplication
B) enables production of hypertonic urine
C) creates high interstitial NaCl concentration
D) A, B, and C
E) B and C only

D) A, B, and C

3) The process of filtration occurs at

A) the distal convoluted tubule.
B) the glomerular (Bowmanʹs) capsule.
C) the nephron loop (loop of Henle).
D) the proximal convoluted tubule.
E) the collecting duct.

B) the glomerular (Bowmanʹs) capsule.

Secretion of hydrogen ion by the PCT is by the process of

A) cotransport.
B) facilitated diffusion.
C) active transport.
D) countertransport.
E) diffusion.

D) countertransport.

Autoregulation of the rate of glomerular filtration has which of the following properties?

A) depends on changes in the afferent arteriole
B) depends on changes in the efferent arteriole
C) maintains glomerular filtration over a wide range of blood pressures
D) all of the above
E) A and C only

D) all of the above

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla?

A) creates high interstitial NaCl concentration
B) releases renin
C) initial filtrate enters here
D) tip of the medullary pyramid
E) final urine enters here

D) tip of the medullary pyramid

The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers:

A) podocyte filtration slits, matrix cells in the glomerulus, and endothelium of glomerulus.
B) filtration slits, foot processes, and slit pores.
C) fenestrations, matrix, and foot processes.
D) dense layer of glomerulus, foot processes, and fenestrations in the capsule.

E) endothelium of glomerulus, dense layer of glomerulus, and podocyte filtration slits.

E) endothelium of glomerulus, dense layer of glomerulus, and podocyte filtration slits.

The kidneys are retroperitoneal, and the renal arteries branch directly off the abdominal aorta.

A) The first part of the statement is true but the second part is false.
B) The first part of the statement is false but the second part is true.
C) Both parts of the statement are true. D) Both parts of the statement are false.

C) Both parts of the statement are true.

Approximately ________ liters of glomerular filtrate enter glomerular capsules each day.
A) 18
B) 1.8
C) 125
D) 180
E) 480

D) 180

If heavy exercise reduces blood flow to the kidneys, which of the following might occur?

A) loss of protein in urine
B) permanent kidney injury
C) presence of blood
D) A, B, and C
E) A and C only

D) A, B, and C

Urine is eliminated through the
A) kidney.
B) liver.
C) ureter.
D) urethra.
E) urinary bladder.

D) urethra.

The renal sinus is

A) a renal corpuscle.
B) part of a renal pyramid.
C) a large branch of the renal pelvis.
D) an internal cavity lined by the fibrous capsule.
E) the innermost layer of kidney tissue.

D) an internal cavity lined by the fibrous capsule.

Urine is carried to the urinary bladder by A) blood vessels.
B) lymphatics.
C) the calyces.
D) the urethra.
E) the ureters.

E) the ureters.

Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called A) calyces.
B) renal pelvises.
C) nephrons.
D) pyramids.
E) renal columns.

D) pyramids.

15) Blood leaves the glomerulus through a blood vessel called the
A) afferent arteriole.
B) efferent arteriole.
C) interlobular arteriole.
D) vasa recta.
E) renal vein.

B) efferent arteriole.

Each of the following organ systems excretes wastes to some degree, except the ________ system. A) digestive
B) urinary
C) integumentary
D) endocrine
E) respiratory

D) endocrine

A chemical that minimizes changes in the pH of a body fluid by releasing or binding hydrogen ion is called a(n)
A) compensation.
B) buffer.
C) alkali.
D) electrolyte.
E) acid.

B) buffer.

Aldosterone
A) promotes sodium retention in the kidneys.
B) is secreted in response to elevated levels of potassium in the blood.
C) helps decrease blood volume and lower blood pressure.
D) A, B, and C
E) A and B only

E) A and B only

In an adult female, the body consists of about ________ percent water.
A) 80
B) 40
C) 50
D) 70

C) 50

Antidiuretic hormone
A) is secreted by the adenohypophysis.
B) stimulates water intake.
C) stimulates water conservation by the kidneys.
D) A, B, and C
E) B and C only

E) B and C only

Which hormone most affects the osmolarity of blood?
A) PTH
B) ANP
C) ADH
D) angiotensin II
E) epinephrine

C) ADH

About two-thirds of the body fluid is within cells and is termed ________ fluid. A) interstitial
B) intercellular
C) vital
D) extracellular
E) 60
E) intracellular

E) intracellular

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