Start and end dates of the Roman Empire
31 BC-476 AD
Date of the Council of Nicea
Date of the Edict of Milan
Date of the Founding of Islam
Date of the Battle of Tours
Date Charlemagne was crowned emperor
Date of the Treaty of Verdun
Dates of the Romanesque Era
Bring order, law, and government to other peoples
Chariot Race arena, held 120,000
Column of Trajan
125 ft high, relief structures spiral all around column, statue of St. Peter on top
number of miles of roads built by the roman soldiers or slaves
Three possible uses for aqueducts
Transport water, form a bridge, or road
Grave mentality, serious
Origin of "decimation"
If one member of the roman army showed cowardice, every 10th member was put to death. Root "Deci"
Population of rome at its height
over one million
economic demographic of rome
90% of the population was poor, no middle class. 20% unemployed, 50% had state jobs
Name of small apartments where 45,000 romans lived (90% of population)
Diet of poor
Bread, wine, olives
Number of people the colosseum could hold
50,000 seated, 10-20,000 standing
number of humans/animals killed in the colosseum daily
over 1000 animals and 100 humans. sometimes there was a foot of blood on the arena floor
Edict of Milan
Christianity would be tolerated. Instituted by Constantine after a vision of a cross and a victory in Battle of the Milvian Bridge
Peter is the head of the church in the west
A Peacock on a grave symbolizes
Famous Roman aqueduct in Gaul
Pont du Gard
Knew swamps and marshes led to disease, provided sewers and drains for new territories
Name of city plan developed by Roman engineers for the army
Intermarrying resulting from soliders marrying local girls in new territories. Encouraged by government because that committed solider to that area. Increased citizens that could be taxed.
Palace of Diocletian
Standard format for cities and palaces, had a big defensive wall around it.
Admired by romans, in contrast to the idealism of the Greeks
Family structure where the father was head of the household, had power of life and death over everyone in house. Could sell his children into slavery, or even kill wife
Romans wanted everything simple and direct. No excuses
Manliness, taught to young, exemplified through practice of "decimation"
duty, society over the individual
Baths of Caracalla: "Poor man's palace"
Huge public bath houses. Rooms called tepedarium (room temp, had lockers) then to the hot room caldarium (like a sauna/hot tub) then to the frigidarium (cold air pumped thru floor)
Opposite of pietas; needed to be controlled through watching the gladiators so it wouldn't be taken out on public
Mosaics of Rich in villas
Had a dog mosaic on front entryway to guard against theft, had mosaics of food on the floor of dining area because they would throw their food on the floor for the slaves to pick up.
The sacred road, leads to the roman forum
In Asia Minor (Ephesus), shows that eastern roman empire was very wealthy. Beautiful streets with marble, lined with columns and statues
Spread quickly because of Roman persecution and roads, Christians were killed in the Colosseum.
Romans would cremate their bodies and have tombs outside city
Christians practiced inhumation or the burying of their dead, since Christianity was forbidden, had to dig Catacombs under the city in the Tufa (volcanic rock)
Little crevices were the bodies were placed in the catacombs
Private family burial areas
Aranz or aront prayer
People praying with uplifted hands, depicted on early christian burial places
Adapting what people already knew to the new religion. (i.e. depicting Christ like Apollo and the unconquered sun
Emperor who made Christianity the state religion and outlawed paganism
Came up with the idea to split up roman empire into two empires. Eastern capital at Byzantium, Western at Rome
Germanic tribes (Goths) Sack Rome
Romans spread themselves too thin, the Goths were pushed south due to the harsh weather and overran the western empire
Moved western capital to Ravenna, Italy because it was surrounded by rivers and marshes, so hard to invade
Daughter of Theodocius, kidnapped by the Goths when they sacked Rome. They wanted to exchange her for ships and grain but her brother didn't give in. She later married the Gothic Chieftain, once he died she married the next emperor of Rome, he died so she ruled Rome for about 25 years
Emperor who expanded Byzantine Empire, reclaimed much of the West. His law code was one of the first modern law codes
Opened up the east to trade, brought about an influx of goods (silk and spices). Resulted in the Renaissance
Self sufficient and independent because they were based on trade. People flocked to towns to become merchants
Bergers or Bourgeoisie
Middle class in medieval towns (neither serf nor aristocrat)
Individuals tied to the land. If they made it to the city and lived there for a year and a day they would be free. Not slaves. could keep 1/3 of whatever they produced
Governed marketplace, set hours and days of operation, controlled prices of goods and standards for measurements
resulted as a result of increased specialization within individual crafts. Supervised production of goods and training of craftsmen.
Lowest, worked in return for training.
Licensed artisans, paid by the day (journee=paid by the day)
Operate workshops, train others, vote in guild. Only acknowledged as master once journeyman completed his masterpiece and the guild accepted it.
Problems of Medieval cities
pollution, overcrowding, crime, disease (black death)
one long arm and three shorter ones
Model of the ideal Roman
Writing about Augustus' life carved in marble, cast in bronze and erected all over rome.
introduced by the huns, metal was welded together in small bags/purses
One third the size of the USA, mecca was the largest city. Wealthy, teeming religious center
Large black stone, inhabited by a god, lots of idols around it.
Bedouin merchant, told by the Angel Gabriel to preach to the people of Mecca to believe in only one god.
All unite in worship of 1 god
The fleeing of Mohammad from Meca to Medina. The foundation of Islam
"one who submits"
Submission to the will of Allah
5 pillars of Islamic Faith
1. Recite the creed 2. pray 5 times daily 3. fasting 4. Alms giving 5. Pilgrimage
Spread of Islam
Monotheism attractive, if didn't convert, had to pay a tax. Built cities everywhere which became trade hubs
Majority of Muslims (more secular)
Political and religious authority
Muslim religious scholar
Muslim prayer hall
"the hammer" Frankish king who fought at the battle of tours
"charles the great" Established capital at Aachen. Strong centralized government, dreamed of reestablishing Rome
Holy Roman Empire
Divided Kingdom into administrative places and put counts over each.
Two men, one secular, one from the church appointed by Charlemagne to check on his subjects
Louis the Pious
Son of Charlemagne
"first born" has inheritance
System of dividing up land, Hierarchical
Baptism, Confirmation, Marriage, Eucharist, Confession, Holy Orders, Last Rites
Powerful tool which took away the sacraments from people
Excommunication of a large group of people
The Selling of church offices
Pope Gregory the 7th
God's representative on Earth, believed in investiture or that church could appoint church officials
Concordat of worms
Church could elect bishop, but King could be present.