Medical Terminology Chapter 9 Terms: The Urinary System

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homeostasis

the process through which the body maintains a constant internal environment. these functions include: maintaining the proper balance of water, salts and acids in the body by filtering the blood as it flows through the kidneys, constantly filtering the blood to remove urea and other waste materials from the bloodstream and converting these waste products and excess fluids into urine in the kidneys and excreting them from the body via the urinary bladder

home/o

WORD PART:
constant

-stasis

WORD PART:
control

urea

the major waste product of protein metabolism

kidneys

constantly filter the blood to remove waste products and excess water

renal

pertaining to the kidneys

ren/o

WORD PART:
kidney

retroperitoneal

pertaining to being located behind the peritoneum

renal cortex

the outer region of the kidney. it contains over one million microscopic units called nephrons

medulla

the inner region of the kidney; it contains most of the urine-collecting tubules

nephron

a functional unit of the kidney. these units form urine by the process of filtration, reabsorption and secretion

reabsorption

the return to the blood of some of the substances that were removed through filtration

glomerulus

a cluster of capillaries surrounded by a cup-shaped membrane called the bowman's capsule

urochrome

the pigment that gives urine its yellow-amber or straw color. the color of urine can be influenced by normal factors such as the amount of liquid consumed, and can also be changed by diseases and medications

ur/o

WORD PART:
urine

- chrome

WORD PART:
color

renal pelvis

the funnel-shaped area within each kidney that is surrounded by renal cortex and medulla. this is where the newly formed urine collects before it flows into the ureters

ureters

two narrow tubes, each about 10-12 inches long, which transport urine from the kidney to the bladder. peristalsis moves urine down each ureter to the bladder. urine drains from the ureters into the bladder through the ureteral orifices in the wall of the urinary bladder

urinary bladder

a hollow muscular organ that is a reservoir for urine before it is excreted from the body. the bladder is located in the anterior portion of the pelvic cavity behind the pubic symphysis. the bladder stores about one pint of urine. like the stomach, the bladder is lined with rugae

trigone

the smooth triangular area on the inner surface of the bladder located between the opening of the ureters and urethra

urethra

the tube extending from the bladder to outside of the body

urinary sphincters

one located at either end of the urethra, control the flow of urine from the bladder into the urethra and out of the urethra through the urethral meatus

urethral meatus

the external opening of the urethra

female urethra

approximately 1.5 inches long, urethral meatus is located between the clitoris and the opening of the vagina. the urethra conveys only urine

male urethra

approximately 8 inches line, urethral meatus located at the tip of the penis. urethra transport urine and semen

prostate gland

part of the male reproductive system, surrounds the urethra

urination

voiding; micturition; the normal process of excreting urine. it requires the coordinated contraction of the bladder muscles and relaxation of the sphincters. this action forces the urine through the urethra and out through the urinary meatus

nephrologist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the kidneys

nephr/o

WORD PART:
kidneys

urologist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the urinary system of females and the genitourinary system of males

genitourinary

refers to both the genital and urinary organs

renal failure

the inability of one or both kidneys to perform their functions. the body cannot replace damaged nephrons, and when too many nephrons have been destroyed, the result is kidney failure

uremia

uremic poisoning; a toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function is compromised and urea is retained in the blood

acute renal failure (ARF)

has sudden onset and is characterized by uremia. it can be fatal if not reversed promptly. this condition can be caused by many factors, including a sudden drop in blood volume or blood pressure due to injury or surgery

chronic renal failure

the progressive loss of renal function, sometimes leading to uremia, which is caused by a variety of conditions such as kidney disease, diabetes mellitus or hypertension

end-stage renal disease (ESRD)

refers to the late stages of chronic renal failure in which there is irreversible loss of the function of both kidneys. without dialysis or a kidney transplant, this condition is fatal

hemolytic uremic syndrome

a condition in which hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia cause acute renal failure and possibly death. this syndrome can be the result of an e.coli infection in young children and the elderly

nephrotic syndrome

a condition in which very high levels of protein are lost in the urine and abnormally low levels of protein are present in the blood. this is the result of damage to the kidney's glomeruli

nephrosis

any degenerative kidney disease causing nephrotic syndrome without inflammation

anuria

the absence of urine formation in the kidneys

edema

excessive fluid in the body tissues

hyperproteinuria

the presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in the urine

hypoproteinemia

the presence of abnormally low concentrations of protein in the blood

nephropathy

any disease of the kidney

diabetic nephropathy

a kidney disease characterized by hypoproteinuria, which is the result of thickening and hardening of the glomeruli caused by long-term diabetes mellitus

hydronephrosis

the dilation of one or both kidneys. this condition can be caused by problems associated with the backing up of urine due to an obstruction such as a stricture in the ureter or the blockage in the opening from the bladder to the urethra, or in the urethra itself

stricture

an abnormal band of tissue that narrows or completely blocks a body passage

nephrectasis

the distention of the pelvis of the kidney

distention

enlarged or stretched

nephritis

inflammation of the kidney or kidneys. the two most common causes are infection or an autoimmune disease

glomerulonephritis

bright's disease; a type of kidney disease caused by inflammation of the glomeruli that causes red blood cells and proteins to leak into the urine

glomerul/o

WORD PART:
glomeruli

nephroptosis

floating kidney; the prolapse of a kidney

-ptosis

WORD PART:
droop or prolapse

nephropyosis

pyonephrosis; the suppuration (formation or discharge of pus) of the kidney

polycystic kidney disease

a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys. these cysts, which slowly replace much of the mass of the kidney, reduce the kidney function, and this eventually leads to kidney failure

renal colic

an acute pain in the kidney area that is caused by blockage during the passage of a kidney stone

colic

spasmodic pains in the abdomen

wilms tumor

a malignant tumor of the kidney that occurs in young children. there is a high cure rate for this condition when this condition is treated promptly

stone

calculus; an abnormal mineral deposit that has formed within the body. they vary in size from small sand-like granules to the size of marbles and are named for the organ or tissue where they are located. in the urinary system, calculi formed when waste products in the urine crystalize

nephrolithiasis

the presence of stones in the kidney. as these stones travel with the urine, they are named for the location where they become lodged

nephrolith

renal calculus; kidney stone; a stone found in the kidney

ureterolith

a stone located anywhere along the ureter

ureter/o

WORD PART:
ureter

cystolith

a stone located within the urinary bladder

cyst/o

WORD PART:
bladder

hydroureter

the distention of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked

ureterectasis

the distention of a ureter

ureterorrhagia

the discharge of blood from the ureter

urinary tract infection (UTI)

usually begins in the bladder; however, these infections can affect all, or parts, of the urinary system. these infections occur more frequently in women because the urethra is short and located near the openings of the vagina and rectum

urethritis

an inflammation of the urethra

urethr/o

WORD PART:
urethra

cystitis

an inflammation of the bladder

pyelitis

an inflammation of the renal pelvis

pyel/o

WORD PART:
renal pelvis

pyelonephritis

an inflammation of both the renal pelvis and of the kidney. this is usually caused by a bacterial infection that has spread upward from the bladder

cystalgia

cystodynia; pain in the urinary bladder

cystocele

fallen bladder; a hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall

interstitial cystitis

a chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder. the symptoms of this condition are similar to those of cystitis; however, they do not respond to traditional treatment

trigonitis

an inflammation of the urinary bladder that is localized in the region of the trigone

trigon/o

WORD PART:
trigone

vesicovaginal fistula

an abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina that allows the constant flow of urine from the bladder into the vagina

vesic/o

WORD PART:
bladder

vagin/o

WORD PART:
vagina

neurogenic bladder

a urinary problem caused by interference with the normal nerve pathways associated with urination

-genic

WORD PART:
created by

urethrorrhagia

bleeding from the urethra

urethrorrhea

an abnormal discharge from the urethra. this condition is associated with some sexually transmitted diseases

urethrostenosis

narrowing of the urethra

epispadias

a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening. in the male, the urethral opening is located on the upper surface of the penis. in the female, the urethral opening is in the region of the clitoris

hypospadias

a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening. in the male, the urethral opening is on the under surface of the penis. in the female, the urethral opening is into the vagina

paraspadias

a congenital abnormality in males in which the urethral opening is on the side of the penis

benign prostatic hypertrophy

benign prostatic hyperplasia; enlarged prostate; prostatomegaly; an abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland that occurs most often in men over age 50. this condition can make urination difficult

hypertrophy

the general increase in bulk of a body part or organ that is not due to tumor formation

prostatism

the condition of having symptoms resulting from compression or obstruction of the urethra due to benign prostatic hypertrophy

prostat/o

WORD PART:
prostate gland

prostate cancer

one of the most common cancers among men. this disease can grow slowly with no symptoms, or it can grow aggressively and spread throughout the body

prostatitis

an inflammation of the prostate gland

diuresis

the increased output of urine

diur/o

WORD PART:
increasing the output of urine

dysuria

difficult or painful urination

-uria

WORD PART:
urination

enuresis

the involuntary discharge of urine

-uresis

WORD PART:
urination

nocturnal enuresis

bed-wetting; urination incontinence during sleep

nocturia

excessive urination during the night

oliguria

scanty urination

olig/o

WORD PART:
scanty

polyuria

excessive urination

urinary hesitancy

difficulty in starting a urinary stream. this condition is most common in older men with enlarged prostate glands

bashful bladder syndrome

in younger people, the inability to urinate when another person is present

urinary retention

the inability to empty the bladder. this condition is also more common in men, and is frequently associated with an enlarged prostate gland

incontinence

the inability to control the excretion of urine and feces

urinary incontinence

the inability to control the voiding of urine

stress incontinence

the inability to control the voiding or urine under physical stress such as running, sneezing, laughing or coughing

overactive bladder

urge incontinence; occurs when the detrusor muscle in the wall of the bladder is too active. symptoms include urinary frequency, urgency and accidental urination due to a sudden and unstoppable need to urinate

urinalysis

the examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements

bladder ultrasound

the use of a handheld ultrasound transducer to measure the amount of urine remaining in the bladder after urination. a normal bladder holds between 300 and 400 ccs of urine. when more than this amount is still present after urination, the bladder is described as being distended

catheterization

the insertion of a tube into the bladder in order to procure a sterile specimen for diagnostic purposes. it is also used to remove urine from the bladder when the patient is unable to urinate for other reasons. another use is to place medication into the bladder

cystography

a radiographic examination of the bladder after instillation of a contract medium via a urethral catheter

cystoscopy

the visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope. a specialized cystoscope is also for treatment procedures such as the removal of tumors or the reduction of an enlarged prostate gland

intravenous pyelogram

excretory urography; a radiographic study of the kidneys and ureters. a contrast medium is administered intravenously to clearly define these structures in the resulting image. this examination is used to diagnose changes in the urinary tract resulting from kidney stones, infections, enlarged prostate, tumors and internal injuries

computed tomography

CAT scan; more commonly used as a primary tool for evaluation of the urinary system because it can be rapidly performed and provides additional imaging of the abdomen, which may reveal other potential sources for the patient's symptoms

KUB (kidneys, ureters, bladder)

flat-plate of the abdomen; a radiographic study of these structures without the use of a contract medium

retrograde urography

a radiograph of the urinary system taken after dye has been in the urethra through a sterile catheter and caused to flow upward through the urinary tract

voiding cystourethrography

a diagnostic procedure in which fluoroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder and through the urethra. this procedure is often performed after cystography

digital rectal examination

performed on men to screen for prostate enlargement, infection and indications of prostate cancer

prostate-specific antigen blood test

PSA test; used to screen for prostate cancer. it measures the amount of prostate-specific antigen that is present in the blood specimen. the prostate-specific antigen is a protein produced by the cells of the prostate gland. the higher a man's PSA level, the more likely it is that cancer is present

diuretics

medications administered to increase urine secretion in order to rid the body of excess water and salt

dialysis

a procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function

dia-

WORD PART:
complete or through

hemodialysis

the process by which waste products are filtered directly from the patient's blood. treatment is performed on a hemodialysis unit which is frequently referred to as an artificial kidney. a shunt implanted in the patient's arm is connected to the hemodialysis unit and arterial blood flows through the filters of the unit. the filters contain dialysate, which is a solution made up of water and electrolytes. this solution cleanses the blood by removing waste products and excess fluids. the cleansed blood is returned to the body through a vein. these treatments take several hours and must be repeated about three times a week

electrolytes

the salts that conduct electricity and are found in the body fluid, tissue and blood

peritoneal dialysis

the lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter to remove waste from the blood. the dialysate solution flows into the peritoneal cavity and the fluid is exchanged through a catheter implanted in the abdominal wall. this type of dialysis is used for renal failure and certain types of poisoning

continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

provides ongoing dialysis as the patient goes about his or her daily activities. in this procedure, a dialysate solution is instilled from a plastic container worn under the patient's clothing. about every 4 hours, the used solution is drained back into this bag and the bag is discarded. a new bag is then attached, the solution is instilled, and the process continues

continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis

uses a machine to cycle the dialysate fluid during the night while the patient sleeps

nephrolysis

the freeing of a kidney from adhesions OR a pathologic condition in which there is the destruction of renal cells

nephropexy

nephrorrhaphy; the surgical fixation of a floating kidney

nephrostomy

the establishment of an opening from the pelvis of the kidney to the exterior of the body. in a kidney affected by hydronephrosis, this allows bypassing of the ureter because the urine from the kidney is drained directly through the back

pyeloplasty

the surgical repair of the renal pelvis

pyelotomy

a surgical incision into the renal pelvis. this procedure is performed to correct an obstruction of the junction between the renal pelvis and ureter

renal transplantation

the grafting of a donor kidney into the body to replace the recipient's failed kidneys. a single transplanted kidney, from either a living or nonliving donor, is capable of adequately performing all kidney functions

extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)

the destruction of stones with the use of high-energy ultrasonic waves traveling through water or gel. the fragments of these stones are then excreted in the urine

lithotripsy

to crush a stone

lith/o

WORD PART:
stone

nephrolithotomy

the surgical removal of a nephrolith

percutaneous nephrolithotomy

performed by making a small incision in the back and inserting a nephroscope to crush and remove a kidney stone

ureterectomy

the surgical removal or a ureter

ureteroplasty

the surgical repair of a ureter

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