34 AND 35

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1. As World War II began for the United States in 1941, President Roosevelt
a) led a seriously divided nation into the conflict
b) endorsed the same kind of government persecution of German-Americans as Wilson had in World War I
c) called the American people to the same kind of idealistic crusade with the same rhetoric that Wilson had used in World War I
d) decided to concentrate first on the war in Europe and to place the Pacific war on hold
e) declared that the first strategic goal was recovery from Pearl Harbor

d

2. Once at war, Americans first great challenge was to
a) pass a conscription law
b) raise an army and navy
c) extend aid to the Soviet Union
d) develop atomic weapons
e) retool its industry for all-out war production

e

3. Overall, most ethnic groups in the United States during World War II
a) were further assimilated into American society
b) were not allowed to serve in the military
c) had their patriotism questioned as in World War I
d) cast their vote for Republican candidates opposed to the war
e) served in ethnically distinct military units

a

4. Japanese-Americans were placed in concentration camps during World War II
a) due to numerous acts of sabotage
b) in retaliation for the placement of Americans in concentration camps by the Japanese
c) as a result of anti-Japanese prejudice and fear
d) because many were loyal to Japan
e) all of the above

c

5. The minority groups most adversely affected by Washington's wartime policies was
a) German-Americans
b) blacks
c) Japanese-Americans
d) American communists
e) Italian-Americans

c

6. In the 1800s the Japanese government drove many Japanese farmers off their land by
a) confiscating property for military bases
b) forcing them to work in factories
c) conscripting them into the military
d) imposing a steep land tax
e) refusing to let them grow rice

d

7. In the period from 1885 to 1924, Japanese immigrants to the U.S. were
a) poorly educated
b) primarily from the island of Hokkaido
c) some of the poorest people to enter the country
d) exclusively farmers
e) select representatives of their nation

e

8. When the U.S. entered World War II in December 1941,
a) it took nearly two years for the country to unite
b) the conflict soon b3ecame an idealistic crusade for democracy
c) the government repudiated the Atlantic Charter
d) a majority of Americans had no clear idea of what the war was about
e) the idea of allying with the Communist Soviet Union was repugnant

d

9. During World War II, the United States government commissioned the production of synthetic ________________ in order to offset the loss of access to prewar supplies in East Asia.
a) textiles
b) rubber
c) tin
d) fuels
e) plastics

b

10. Match each of the wartime agencies below with its correct function:
A. War Production Board
B. Office of Price Administration
C. War Labor Board
D. Fair Employment Practices Commission
1) assigned priorities with respect to the use of raw materials and transportation facilities
2) controlled inflation by rationing
3) imposed ceilings on wage increases
4) saw to it that no hiring discrimination was used against blacks seeking employment in war industries

a) A-2, B-3, C-4, D-1
b) A-1, Bi2, C-3, D-4
c) A-2, B-4, C-3, D-1
d) A-3, Bi2, C-1, D-4
e) A-4, B-1, C-2, D-3

b

11. While American workers, on the whole, were committed to the war effort, several unions went on strike. The most prominent was the
a) Teamsters
b) Amalgamated Meat Packers
c) Longshoremen
d) United Mine Workers
e) Industrial Workers of the World

d

12. During World War II,
a) labor unions declared a self-imposed moratorium on strikes
b) unions actively combated racial discrimination
c) farm production declined
d) for security reasons, the bracero program with Mexico was temporarily halted
e) labor unions substantially increased their membership

e

13. The employment of more than six million women in American industry during World War II led to
a) equal pay for men and women
b) a greater percentage of American women in war industries than anywhere else in the world
c) the establishment of day-care centers by the government
d) a reduction in employment for black males
e) a strong desire of most women to work for wages

c

14. The main reason that the majority of women war workers left the labor force at the end of WWII was
a) union demands
b) employer demands that they quit
c) make discrimination on the job
d) government requirements to hire veterans
e) family obligations

e

15. African-Americans did all of the following during World War II except
a) fight in integrated combat units
b) rally behind the slogan "Double V" (victory over dictators abroad and racism at home)
c) move north and west in large numbers
d) form a militant organization called the Congress of Racial Equality
e) serve in the Army Air Corps

a

16. Which of the following is least related to the other three?
a) Smith-Connally Act
b) A. Philip Randolph
c) fair Employment Practices Commission
d) racial discrimination in wartime industry
e) proposed "Negro March on Washington"

a

17. Big-government intervention got its biggest boost from
a) the New Deal
b) World War II
c) the Depression
d) World War I
e) the Cold War

b

18. The northward migration of African-Americans accelerated after World War II because
a) the southern system of sharecropping was declared illegal
b) Latinos had replaced blacks in the work force
c) Mechanical cotton pickers came into use
d) northern cities repealed segregation laws
e) the South made it clear that they were not wanted

c

19. During World War II, American Indians
a) demanded that President Roosevelt end discrimination in defense industries
b) rarely enlisted in the armed forces
c) moved south to replace African-American laborers
d) moved off reservations in large numbers
e) promoted recovery of tribal languages

d

20. By the end of World War II, the heart of the United States' African-American community had shifted to
a) Florida and the Carolinas
b) southern cities
c) the Pacific Northwest
d) Midwestern small towns
e) northern cities

e

21. The national debt increased most during
a) Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal
b) Herbert Hoover's administration
c) World War II
d) World War I
e) the 1920s

c

22. Most of the money raised to finance World War II came through
a) tariff collections
b) excise taxes on luxury goods
c) raising income taxes
d) voluntary contributions
e) borrowing

e

23. The first naval battle in history in which all of the fighting was done by carrier-based aircraft was the Battle of
a) Leyte Gulf
b) the Java Sea
c) the Coral Sea
d) Midway
e) Iwo Jima

c

24. The tide of Japanese conquest in the Pacific was turned following the Battle of
a) Leyte Gulf
b) Bataan and Corregidor
c) the Coral Sea
d) Midway
e) Guadalcanal

d

25. The Japanese made a crucial mistake in 1942 in their attempt to control much of the Pacific when they
a) failed to take the Philippines
b) unsuccessfully attacked the oil-rich Dutch East Indies
c) overextended themselves instead of digging in and consolidating their gains
d) sent their submarine force on a suicide mission at the Battle of Midway
e) attacked Alaska and the Australia

c

26. In waging war against Japan, the United States relied on a strategy of
a) heavy bombing from Chinese air bases
b) invading Japanese strongholds in Southeast Asia
c) fortifying China by transporting supplies from India over the Himalayan "hump"
d) "island hopping" across the South Pacific while bypassing Japanese strongholds
e) turning the Japanese flanks in New Guinea and Alaska

d

27. The conquest of ________________ was especially important, because from there Americans could conduct round-trip bombing raids on the Japanese home islands.
a) Guadalcanal
b) Wake Island
c) New Guinea
d) Okinawa
e) Guam

e

28. The Allies won the Battle of the Atlantic by doing all of the following except
a) escorting convoys of merchants' vessels
b) organizing Allied "wolf packs" to chase down German U-boats
c) dropping depth charges from destroyers
d) bombing submarine bases
e) deploying the new technology of radar

b

29. Hitler's advance in the European theater of war crested in late 1942 at the Battle of Battle of ________________, after which his fortunes gradually declined.
a) the Bulge
b) Stalingrad
c) Monte Casino
d) Britain
e) El Alamein

b

30. The Allies postponed opening a second front in Europe until 1944 because
a) they hoped that Germany and the Soviet Union would cripple each other
b) men and material were needed more urgently in the Pacific
c) the Soviet Union requested a delay until it could join the campaign
d) they believed that North Africa was more strategically important
e) of British reluctance and lack of adequate shipping

e

31. The Allied demand for unconditional surrender was criticized mainly by opponents who believed that such surrender would
a) encourage the enemy to resist as long as possible
b) be impossible to obtain
c) be unacceptable to the Soviets, who had already suffered terrible casualties
d) result in an armistice whose terms would lead to war, much as the Treaty of Versailles had led to World War II
e) discourage anti-Hitler resisters

a

32. President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill announced at their wartime conference in Casablanca that their principal war aim was to
a) destroy the last remnants of European imperialism
b) promote the national independence of all European nations
c) contain the postwar power of the Soviet Union
d) force the unconditional surrender of both Germany and Japan
e) create an effective postwar Atlantic alliance

d

33. Arrange these wartime conferences in chronological order: (A) V-J Day, (B) V-E Day, (C) D Day, (D) invasion of Italy
a) D, C, B, A
b) A, C, B, D
c) B, D, A, C
d) C, A, D, B
e) A, D, B, C

c

34. The major consequence of the Allied conquest of Sicily in August 1943 was
a) a modification of the demand of unconditional surrender of Italy
b) the overthrow of Mussolini and Italy's unconditional surrender
c) the swift Allied conquest of the Italian peninsula
d) a conflict between Churchill and General Eisenhower over the invasion of the Italian mainland
e) the threat of a Communist takeover of the Italian government

a

35. After the Italian surrender in August, 1943,
a) the Allies found it easy to conquer Rome and the rest of Italy
b) the Soviets accepted the wisdom of delaying the invasion of France and pursuing the second front in Italy
c) the British demanded the restoration of the monarchy in Italy
d) the Americans withdrew from Italy to prepare for D-Day
e) the German army poured into Italy and stalled the Allied advance

e

36. The real impact of the Italian front on World War II may have been that it
a) delayed the D-Day invasion and allowed the Soviet Union to advance further into Eastern Europe
b) prevented the rise of fascism or communism in Italy after the war
c) enabled the Americans to appease both British and Soviet strategic demands
d) enabled the U.S. to prevent Austria and Greece from falling into Soviet hands
e) destroyed the monastery of Monte Cassino and other Italian artistic treasures

e

37. At the wartime Teheran Conference,
a) the Soviet Union agreed to declare war on Japan within three months
b) the Big Three allies agreed to divide postwar Germany into separate occupied zones
c) the Soviet Union agreed to allow free elections in Eastern European nations that its armies occupied at the end of the war
d) plans were made for the opening of a second front in Europe
e) it was agreed that five Big Powers would have veto power in the United Nations

a

38. The cross-channel invasion of Normandy to open a second front in Europe was commanded by General
a) George Patton
b) Dwight Eisenhower
c) Douglas MacArthur
d) Bernard Montgomery
e) Omar Bradley

d

39. In a sense, Franklin Roosevelt was the "forgotten man" at the Democratic Convention in 1944 because
a) so much attention was focused on who would gain the vice presidency
b) he remained in Washington, D.C., to conduct the war
c) poor health prevented him from taking an active role
d) the issue of a fourth term was prominent
e) vice president Henry Wallace controlled the convention

b

40. Action by the U.S. against Hitler's campaign of genocide against the Jews
a) was reprehensibly slow in coming
b) included the admission of large numbers of Jewish refugees into the U.S.
c) involved the bombing of rail lines used to carry victims to the Nazi death camps
d) was slow in coming, because the U.S. did not know about the death camps until near the end of the war
e) was a major reason the U.S. fought World War II

a

41. As a result of the Battle of Leyte Gulf,
a) Japan stalled an Allied victory
b) Admiral William F. "Bull" Halsey lost his first naval engagement
c) Japan was nearly able to take Australia
d) the U.S. could bomb Japan from land bases
e) Japan was finished as a naval power

e

42. The Potsdam conference
a) determined the fate of Eastern Europe
b) brought France and China in as part of the "Big" Five
c) concluded that the Soviet Union would enter the war in the Pacific
d) was Franklin Roosevelt's last meeting with Churchill and Stalin
e) issued an ultimatum to Japan to surrender or be destroyed

a

43. The spending of enormous sums on the original atomic bomb project was spurred briefly by the belief that
a) a nuclear weapon was the only way to win the war
b) the Germans might acquire such a weapon first
c) the Japanese were at work on an atomic bomb project of their own
d) scientists like Albert Einstein might be lost to the war effort
e) the American public would not tolerate the casualties that would result from a land invasion of Japan

e

44. The "unconditional surrender" policy toward Japan was modified by
a) assuring the Japanese that there would be no "war crimes" trials
b) guaranteeing that defeated Japan would be treated decently by American occupiers
c) agreeing not to drop more than tow atomic bombs on Japan
d) agreeing to let the Japanese keep Emperor Hirohito on the throne
e) permitting the Japanese to retain a st5rong army but no real navy

e

45. Which of the following was not among the qualities of the American participation in World War II?
a) a group of highly effective military and political leaders
b) an enormously effective effort in producing weapons and supplies
c) a higher percentage of military casualties than any other Allied nation
d) the preservation of the American homeland against invasion or destruction for the air
e) the maintenance and re-affirmation of the strength of American democracy

e

1. Franklin Roosevelt refused to support the London Economic Conference because
a) its members insisted on rigid adherence to the gold standard
b) any agreement to stabilize national currencies might hurt America's recovery from depression
c) such an agreement would involve the U.S. militarily with the League of Nations
d) the delegates refused to work on reviving international trade
e) it was dominated by British and Swiss bankers

b

2. As a result of Franklin Roosevelt's unwillingness to support the London Conference,
a) inflation in the U.S. was reduced
b) the U.S. was voted out of the League of Nations
c) tensions arouse between the U.S. and Britain
d) the U.S. began to pull out of the Depression
e) the trend toward extreme nationalism was strengthened

e

3. One internationalist action by Franklin D. Roosevelt in his first term in office was
a) the formal recognition of the Soviet Union
b) joining the League of Nations
c) establishing military bases in China
d) his support of the Tydings-McDuffie Act
e) his commitment to Philippine independence

a

4. Roosevelt's recognition of the Soviet Union was undertaken partly
a) in order to win support for American Catholics
b) because the Soviet leadership seemed to be modifying its harsher communist policies
c) in hopes of developing a diplomatic counterweight to the rising power of Japan and Germany
d) to win favor with American liberals and leftists
e) to open opportunities for American investment in Siberian oil fields

c

5. In promising to grant the Philippines independence, the U.S. was motivated by
a) treaty obligations
b) doubts about the islands' potential profitability
c) the view that the islands were militarily indefensible
d) the realization that the islands were economic liabilities
e) regrets over their imperialistic takeover on 1898

d

6. Franklin Roosevelt embarked on the Good Neighbor policy in part because
a) there was a rising tide of anti-Americanism in Latin America
b) Congress had repealed the Monroe Doctrine
c) he feared the spread of communism in the region
d) the policy was part of the neutrality stance taken by the U.S.
e) he was eager to enlist Latin American allies to defend the Western Hemisphere against European and Asian dictators

e

7. As part of his Good Neighbor policy toward Latin America, President Roosevelt
a) abandoned the Monroe Doctrine
b) withdrew American marines from Haiti
c) asked Congress to extend the Platt Amendment in Cuba
d) returned to the Guantanamo naval base to Cuban control
e) proposed to grant Rico its independence

b

8. The 1934 Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act
a) raised America's tariff schedule
b) inhibited President Roosevelt's efforts to implement his Good Neighborhood policy.
c) increased America's foreign trade
d) was most strongly opposed in the South and West
e) was aimed at isolating Italy and Germany

c

9. President Franklin Roosevelt's foreign-trade policy
a) lowered tariffs to increase trade
b) encouraged trade only with Latin America
c) continued the policy that had persisted since the Civil War
d) was reversed only after World War II
e) sought protection for key U.S. industries

a

10. Throughout most of the 1930s, the American people responded to the aggressive actions of Germany, Italy, and Japan by
a) assisting their victims with military aid
b) giving only economic help to the targets of aggression
c) beginning to build up their military forces
d) demanding an oil embargo on all warring nations
e) retreating into isolationism

e

11. Fascist aggression in the 1930s included Mussolini's vision of ______________, Hitler's invasion of _______________, and Franco's overthrow of the republican government of ____________________.
a) Egypt, France, Poland
b) Albania, Italy, Austria
c) Ethiopia, Czechoslovakia, Spain
d) Belgium, the Soviet Union, France
e) Ethiopia, Norway, Portugal

c

12. By the mid-1930s, there was strong nationwide agitation for a constitutional amendment to
a) increase the size of the Supreme Court
b) limit a president to two terms
c) ban arm sales to foreign nations
d) require the president to gain Congressional approval before sending U.S. troops overseas
e) forbid a declaration of war by Congress unless first approved by a popular referendum

e

13. Passage of the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 by the U.S. resulted in all of the following except
a) abandonment of the traditional policy of freedom of the seas
b) a decline in the navy and other armed forces
c) making no distinction whatever between aggressors and victims
d) spurring aggressors along their path of conquest
e) balancing the scales between dictators and U.S. allies by trading with neither

e

14. The Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war,
a) Americans would be prohibited from sailing on the ships of the warring nations
b) America would sell arms and war materials only to the victim of aggression
c) American bankers would be allowed to make loans to only one of the warring nations
d) U.S. diplomats intended to uphold the tradition of freedom of the seas
e) U.S. diplomats and civilians would be withdrawn from both warring nations

a

15. From 1925 to 1940 the transition of American policy on arms sales to warring nations followed this sequence:
a) embargo to lend-lease to cash-and-carry
b) cash-and-carry to lend-lease to embargo
c) lend-lease to cash-and-carry to embargo
d) embargo to cash-and-carry to lend-lease
e) lend-lease to embargo to cash-and-carry

d

16. America's neutrality during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939 allowed
a) Hitler to conquer Spain
b) the Loyalists to win the war
c) Roosevelt and Franco to become personal friends
d) the Soviets to aid the Spanish republic
e) Spain to become a fascist dictatorship

e

17. Franklin Roosevelt's sensational "Quarantine Speech" resulted in
a) immediate British support for U.S. policy
b) a wave of protest by isolationists
c) support from both Democratic and Republican leaders
d) Japanese aggression in China
e) A modification of the Neutrality Acts

b

18. In September 1938 in Munich, German,
a) Britain and France consented to Germany's taking the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia
b) Hitler declared his intention to take Austria
c) Hitler signed the Axis Alliance Treaty with Japan
d) Britain and France acquiesced to the German reoccupation of the Rhineland
e) Britain and France declared that an invasion of Poland would mean war

a

19. In 1938 the British and French brought peace with Hitler at the Munich Conference at the expense of
a) Poland
b) The free city of Danzig
c) Austria
d) Belgium
e) Czechoslovakia

e

20. Shortly after Adolf Hitler signed a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union,
a) Britain and France singed a similar agreement
b) the Soviets attacked China
c) Germany invaded Poland and started World War II
d) Italy signed a similar agreement with the Soviets
e) the Germans invaded Finland

c

21. The first casualty of the 1939 Hitler-Stalin nonaggression treaty was
a) Poland
b) Czechoslovakia
c) Austria
d) Belgium
e) the Jews

a

22. Which of the following nations was not conquered by Hitler's Germany between September 1939 and June 1940?
a) Norway
b) the Netherlands
c) France
d) Poland
e) Finland

e

23. All of the following factors contributed to the weaknesses and lateness of America's efforts to aid Europe's threatened Jews except
a) the belief that most Jews would be better off migrating to Israel
b) internal tensions between German-Jewish and eastern European Jewish communities in the U.S.
c) the restrictive Immigration Act of 1924
d) fear that a flood of Jewish refugees would add to unemployment during the Depression
e) Anti-Semitic attitudes in the State Department and Congress

a

24. The U.S. military refused to bomb Nazi gas chambers such as those at Auschwitz and Dachau because of the belief that
a) bombing would kill the Jews kept there
b) bombing would divert essential military resources
c) the military was unsure of the gas chambers' location
d) such attacks would not seriously impede the killing of Jews
e) all of the above

b

25. During World War II, the U.S. saved ________________ Jews from Nazism.
a) about one million
b) no
c) about six million
d) only a small number
e) about 250,000

d

26. Congress's first response to the unexpected fall of France in 1940 was to
a) revoke all the neutrality laws
b) expand naval patrols in the Atlantic
c) enact a new neutrality law enabling the Allies to buy American war materials on a cash-and-carry basis
d) call for the quarantining of aggressor nations
e) pass a conscription law

e

27. America's neutrality effectively ended when
a) Japan attacked Pearl Harbor
b) Germany attacked Poland
c) the conscription laws was passed in 1940
d) France fell to Germany
e) Italy "stabbed France in the back"

d

28. In return for old American destroyers, the British gave the U.S.
a) "most favored nation" status
b) a role in developing the atomic bomb
c) eight valuable naval bases
d) access to German military codes
e) six air bases in Scotland and Iceland

c

29. By 1940 American public opinion began to favor
a) the American First position
b) active participation in the war
c) permitting U.S. volunteers to fight in Britain
d) maintaining strict neutrality
e) providing Britain with "all aid short of war"

e

30. The Republican presidential nominee in 1940 was
a) Wendell L. Willkie
b) Robert A. Taft
c) Thomas E. Dewey
d) Alfred E. Landon
e) Charles A. Lindbergh

a

31. Franklin Roosevelt was motivated to run for a third term in 1940 mainly by his
a) personal desire to defeat his old political rival, Wendell Willkie
b) belief that America needed his experienced leadership during the international crisis
c) mania for power
d) opposition to Willkie's pledge to restore a strict policy of American neutrality
e) belief that the two-term tradition limited democratic choice

b

32. The 1941 lend-lease program was all of the following except
a) a focus of intense debate between internationalists and isolationists
b) a direct challenge to the Axis dictators
c) the point when all pretense of American neutrality was abandoned
d) the catalyst that caused American factories to prepare for all-out war production
e) another privately arranged executive deal, like the destroyers-for-bases trade

e

33. When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, the U.S.
a) promised aid to the Soviets but did not deliver
b) refused to provide any help, either military or economic
c) gave only non-military aid to Russia
d) made lend-lease aid available to the Soviets
e) sent U.S. ships to Soviet naval bases

d

34. The Atlantic Charter, developed by the U.S. and Britain, was also endorsed by
a) Canada
b) France
c) Spain
d) China
e) the Soviet Union

e

35. After the Greer was fired upon, the Kearny crippled, and the Reuben James sunk,
a) Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act
b) the U.S. Navy began escorting merchant vessels carrying lend-lease shipments
c) Congress allowed the arming of U.S. merchant vessels
d) Congress forbade U.S. ships to enter combat zones
e) Roosevelt told the public that war was imminent

c

36. Japan believed that it was forced into war with the U.S. because Franklin Roosevelt insisted that Japan
a) withdraw from the Dutch East Indies
b) leave China
c) renew its trade with America
d) break its treaty of nonaggression with Germany
e) find alternative sources of oil

b

37. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 came as a great surprise because
a) President Roosevelt suspected that if an attack came, it would be in Malaya or the Philippines
b) there was no way of knowing that the Japanese had been provoked to the point of starting a war with the U.S.
c) Japanese communications were in a secret code unknown to the U.S.
d) the U.S. was, at the time, Japan's main source of oil and steel
e) it was believed that Japan had insufficient aircraft carriers to reach near Hawaii

a

38. On the even of Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, a large majority of Americans
a) were beginning to question the increased aid given to Britain
b) still wanted to keep the U.S. out of war
c) accepted the idea that America would enter the war
d) did not oppose Japan's conquests in East Asia
e) were ready to fight Germany but not Japan

b

39. Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) Munich Conference, (B) German invasion of Poland, (C) Hitler-Stalin non-aggression treaty.
a) A, C, B
b) B, C, A
c) C, B, A
d) C, A, B
e) A, B, C

a

40. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) fall of France, (B) Atlantic Conference, (C) Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union
a) B, A, C
b) A, B, C
c) C, B, A
d) A, C, B
e) C, A, B

d

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