Unit 5: Set 3

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Motivation is the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal.

True

The three components of ____ are initiation of effort, direction of effort, and persistence of effort.

Motivation

As seen in class, job performance is a(n) ____ function of motivation, ability, and situational constraints.

additive

In the relationship: "‟??‟ = Motivation „?‟ Ability „?‟ Situational Constraints", what belongs in the spaces „??‟ and „?‟

a. Job performance, +

The phenomenon known as the Hawthorne effect is

a. The tendency for people to base their evaluations of equity on other members of their
group;
b. The tendency for people to behave differently when they know they are being studied;
c. The tendency for people to perform poorly when distracted by too much attention;
d. The tendency for people to respond to threats with a reduction in productivity;

b. The tendency for people to behave differently when they know they are being studied;

The Hawthorne Studies proved that financial incentives weren‟t necessarily the most important motivator for workers.

True

A major advantage of a piecework pay system is that it:

a. creates a powerful incentive to work efficiently.
b. encourages cooperation and teamwork among employees.
c. is a system that is strongly supported by both unions and management.
d. minimizes the need for training and development. e. requires a minimum of paperwork and record keeping.

a. creates a powerful incentive to work efficiently.

According to job enrichment theory, one of the characteristic of a job that contributes to improved motivation and worker performance is higher than average pay.

False

Managers who advocate job enrichment focus on creating jobs with

a. lots of job rotation.
b. repetitive motions. c. simplified tasks so that the worker can achieve high levels of production.
d. skill variety and autonomy.
e. very specialized and difficult tasks.

d. skill variety and autonomy.

The personal satisfaction people feel when they have done a job well is a(n) _______ reward.

Intrinsic

___ is a feeling of intrinsic motivation, in which workers perceive their work to have meaning, and perceive themselves to be competent, having an impact, and capable of self-determination.

a. Empowerment
b. Autonomy
c. Motivation
d.Job satisfaction
e. Self-actualization

d. Job Satisfaction

12. Empowerment
13. Enabling


a. Giving employees the authority and responsibility to make decisions
b. Giving workers the education tools needed to make decisions

12.a
13. b

14. Commitment
15. Engagement
16. Motivation

a. Positive attitude towards the job
b. Positive attitude towards the organization c. The reason for an action, that which gives purpose and direction to behavior

14. positive attitude towards the organization
15. Positive attitude towards the job
16. The reason for an action, that which gives purpose and direction to behavior

Burnout is a result of the erosion of

a. Commitment
b. Engagement
c. Motivation
d.All of the above
e.None of the above

All of the above

Feedback helps enrich a job by satisfying an employee‟s esteem needs

True

19. A hierarchy of human needs can be used to explain motivation;
20. Employees compare their effort and their rewards against those of people in similar positions;
21. The amount of effort employees devote to a task depends on the anticipated outcomes associated
with performance;
22. The characteristics of the job itself will affect worker motivation.
19. A hierarchy of human needs can be used to explain motivation;
20. Employees compare their effort and their rewards against those of people in similar positions;
21. The amount of effort employees devote to a task depends on the anticipated outcomes associated
with performance;
22. The characteristics of the job itself will affect worker motivation.

a. Abraham Maslow‟s pyramid
b. Equity theory
c. Expectancy theory
d. Hygiene and motivation factors
e. Theory Y

19. Abrahams Maslow's pyramid
20. Equity theory
21. Expectancy theory
22. Hygiene and motivation factors

23. Employees will be motivated to perform well at work if they can satisfy their unmet needs by achieving the organization‟s goals;
24. Ensure that the reward workers receive is perceived as fairly compensating them for their efforts when compared to others in similar positions;
25. One should rely on rewards rather than threats and punishment as the primary means of motivating employees, while recognizing that different employees are motivated by different types of rewards;
26. Setting up achievable tasks and valued rewards for individuals will result in effort;
27. The key to improving motivation is to provide interesting, challenging jobs that offer chances forrecognition, advancement, and growth.

a. Equity Theory b. Expectancy Theory c. Maslow‟s Pyramid of Needs d. Theory Y e. Herzberg‟s Hygiene and Motivation Factors

23. Maslow's pyramid of Needs
24. Equity theory
25. Theory Y
26. Expectancy Theory
27. Herzberg's Hygiene and Motivation Factors

28. Adams‟ equity theory 29. Herzberg‟s factor theory
30. Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs theory
31. McGregor‟s Theories X and Y
32. Vroom‟s expectancy theory

a. Applies the insights of the Hawthorne studies to propose a working environment that uses people‟s creativity and sense of work as fulfilling in and of itself;
b. Not all actions geared towards meeting people‟s needs motivate people;
c. People‟s effort will depend on the ratio between their rewards and those of other
members of the organization;
d. Peoples‟ psychological needs are predictable and orderly; e. Proposes a model of how individuals uniquely will exert effort in their employment.

28. c
29. b
30. d
31. a
32. e

a. It is best to run an organization in a hands-off, decentralized manner b. It is very difficult to design appropriate team or collective reward systems, because the
relationship between effort and reward is highly personal
c. Often, rewarding people does not result in increases in performance d. There are factors in the workplace (like safety and pay) that, while necessary, do not act
as motivators
e. Under certain circumstances, coercion and monetary rewards will be appropriate, and
effective, motivators

a. Theory's X and Y
b. Expectancy Theory
c. Equity Theory
d. Hygiene Theory
e. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs model

Which of the following statements is false?

a. Abraham Maslow believed that motivation arises from the desire to satisfy unmet needs;
b. According to Maslow, a satisfied need is no longer a motivator; c. According to Maslow, people will try to satisfy lower order needs before they turn their
attention to higher order needs;
d. Maslow believed that lower-level needs may emerge at any time when they are not met
and take our attention away from higher level needs;
e. Maslow warned that self-actualization is unattainable.

e. Maslow warned that self-actualization is unattainable.

In order to motivate their employees, managers in less developed nations should establish working conditions that focus on meeting their employee‟s self-actualization needs

False

According to Maslow, the primary source of motivation for most employees in the United States would stem from the desire to satisfy their physiological and safety needs.

False

Which would be the best motivator at each stage of Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs?

41. Belonging
42. Esteem
43. Physiological
44. Safety
45. Self-actualization

a. Care b. Coercion c. Money

41. Care
42. Care
43. Money
44. Money
45. Care

At what level of the Maslow hierarchy of needs does the hierarchical / bureaucratic paradigm work best?

a. Self-actualization needs
b. Social and esteem needs
c. Physiological and safety needs

c. Physiological and safety needs

Theory Y managers would tend to

a. Assume that most employees dislike their jobs
b. Have confidence in the ability of employees to solve problems that arise during work;
c. Pay attention to work conditions as a way to improve motivation;
d. Rely on monetary rewards to motivate employees
e. All of the above.

b. Have confidence in the ability of employees to solve problems that arise during work;

48. Theory X
49. Theory Y
50. Theory Z

a. Assumes that employees dislike work, and will avoid it if possible
b. Assumes that employees seek participation and cooperation
c. Assumes that employees will react strongly and positively to empowerment

48. a
49. c
50. a

Match the motivational tool with the kind of organizational behavior theory that it is most associated with

51. Belonging and esteem 52. Empowerment
53. Good pay

a. Theory X
b. Theory Y
c. Theory Z

51. Theory Z
52. Theory Y
53. Theory X

According to Herzberg‟s views, which of the following strategies would be most likely to result in a higher level of worker motivation?

a. Improvements in job-related pay b. Improvements in physical working conditions c. Making the work itself more interesting and challenging d. Providing clear and fair work rules and policies e. Using time-motion studies to find efficient techniques for employees to use

c. . Making the work itself more interesting and challenging

Herzberg found that the factors that ranked high as motivators were usually associated with job content rather than the work environment

True

According to Herzberg, when a hygiene factor is not fulfilled, employees will become dissatisfied

True

How are commitment and engagement related to Herzberg‟s motivation factors?
57. Commitment
58. Engagement

a. Hygiene factors b. Motivation factors

57. motivation factor
58. motivation factor

Match the variables of expectancy theory with the motivational techniques that best address them.

59. Expectancy
60. Instrumentality
61. Valence

a. Bonuses, flexible time and "cafeteria-style" benefits b. Clear goals c. Employee training

59. Clear goals
60. Employee training
61. Bonuses, flexible time and "cafeteria-style" benefits

According to a survey done on teaching evaluations, engineering students consider the improvement of teaching to be the most important outcome of the evaluation process. For engineering students who believe their efforts will lead to better teaching, the motivation to fill out a teaching evaluation would have a ____.


a. Low valence b. Weak expectancy c. Weak instrumentality d. High valence e. Strong instrumentality

e. strong instrumentality

Suppose that you are considering a high paying, stressful job out of college (investment banking, anyone?) Which are the aspects of the job that are associated with each component of expectancy theory?

63. Ability to payoff school debts, chances of long term success
64. Excellent training and networking opportunities 65. High pay

a. Expectancy b. Instrumentality c. Valence

63. Expectancy
64. Instrumentality
65. Valence

The basic principle of equity theory is that employees try to

a. Achieve the mutually agreed upon goals of management and employees;
b. Earn as much as possible with as little work as possible;
c. Ensure that performance standards are fair and attainable;
d. Impress others in the organization;
e. Maintain equity between inputs and outputs compared to people in similar positions.

e. Maintain equity between inputs and outputs compared to people in similar positions.

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