GACS lclab Biology- Chapter 10- Genetics- Vocabulary

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Vocabulary - Sections 1 & 2

gene

A segment of DNA on a chromosome that controls the production of proteins and codes for a specific trait

homologous chromosome

one of a matching pair of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent

gamete

sex cell that has half the number of chromosomes (23 in humans)

haploid

a cell with one of each kind of chromosome (represented as "n"... in humans thats 23).

fertilization

the process by which one haploid gamete combines with another

diploid

the result of fertilization. A cell with "n" female and "n" male chromosomes that now has "2n".

meiosis

a process that is a type of cell division that results in a gamete being formed that contains half the number of chromosomes of its parent. It's called Reduction Division.

crossing over

exchange of genetic material (chromosomal segments) between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis

genetics

the branch of biology that studies heredity, began with Mendel (the father of genetics)

allele

an alternative form of a single gene passed from generation to generation

dominant

describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait

recessive

trait that will only appear in the phenotype if organism inherits two of them; covered up by the dominant gene

homozygous

a trait where the two alleles are the same

heterozygous

a trait where the alleles for a trait are different

genotype

an organisms allele pair.

phenotype

what an organism looks like as a consequence of its allele pair

law of segregation

states that the two alleles for each trait separate during meiosis AND during fertilization two alleles are each trait unite.

hybrid

the offspring of parents that have different forms of a trait (heterozygous)

law of independent assortment

Mendel's law that states that a random distribution of alleles occur during gamete formation. Genes on separate chromosomes sort independently during meiosis.

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