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The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are ________.

surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity

The loudness of a person's voice depends on the ________.

force with which air rushes across the vocal folds

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.

secrete surfactant

) Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is

greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.

) Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular contractions are involved. Expiration, however, depends on two factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors?

the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid

Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?

cartilage rings

Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.

pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by ________.

Boyle's law

) The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases ________.

Dalton's law

Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.

interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

) For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________.

0.5 to 1 micrometer thick

With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a(n) ________.

) decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.

increase of carbon dioxide

Nerve impulses from ________ will result in inspiration.

the ventral respiratory group

In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.

only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form

Which of the following statements is incorrect?

Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants

) Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?

the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid

Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated?

decrease in lactic acid levels

) Which of the following is not a form of lung cancer?

Kaposi's sarcoma

Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2?

blood pH adjustment

Which of the following is not true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the aveoli?

Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter.

Which of the following determines lung compliance?

alveolar surface tension

Tidal volume is air ________.

exchanged during normal breathing

Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?

partial pressure gradient

Possible causes of hypoxia include ________.

too little oxygen in the atmosphere

The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________.

vital capacity

Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange?

) Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta.

Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?

rising blood pressure

Respiratory control centers are located in the ________.

medulla and pons

The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.

inspiratory reserve

Which statement about CO2 is incorrect?

More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.

diffusion

Select the correct statement about the pharynx

The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx

The larynx contains ________.

the thyroid cartilage

Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?

internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract

How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?

) as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells

Which of the following is not found on the right lobe of the lung?

cardiac notch

Which of the choices below is not a role of the pleura?

aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs

Which of the following correctly describes mechanisms of CO2 transport?

attached to the heme part of hemoglobin

Factors that influence the rate and depth of breathing include ________.

voluntary cortical control

Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?

alveoli

The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.

alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes

Gas emboli may occur because a ________.

) diver holds his breath upon ascent

Inspiratory capacity is ________.

the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration

Which center is located in the pons?

pontine respirator group (PRG)

The nose serves all the following functions except ________.

as the initiator of the cough reflex

A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing. However, the respiratory system is developed enough for survival by ________.

28 weeks

Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn?

The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations per minute

Select the correct statement about the neural mechanisms of respiratory control.

The pons is thought to be instrumental in the smooth transition from inspiration to expiration

Which of the choices below is not a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?

number of red blood cells

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