science test 10

47 terms by ransomr15 

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electromagnetic waves

transverse waves that transfer electrical and magnetic energy

electromagnetic radiation

the energy transferred through space by electromagnetic waves

polarized light

light that vibrates in only one direction

photoelectric effect

the ejection of electrons from a substance when light is shined on it

photon

a tiny particle or packet of light energy

electromagnetic spectrum

the complete range of electromagnetic waves placed in order of increasing frequency

radio waves

electromagnetic waves with the longest wavelengths and lowest frequencies

microwaves

radio waves with the shortest wavelengths and the highest frequencies

radar

a system that uses reflected radio waves to detect objects and measure their distance and speed

infrared rays

electromagnetic waves with wavelengths shorter than radio waves, but longer than visible light

thermogram

an image that shows regions of different temperatures in different colors

visible light

electromagnetic waves that are visible to the human eye

ultraviolet rays

electromagnetic waves with wavelengths shorter than visible light, but longer than X-rays

X-rays

electromagnetic waves with wavelengths shorter than ultraviolet rays, but longer than gamma rays

gamma rays

electromagnetic waves with the shortest wavelengths and highest frequencies

transparent material

a material that transmits light without scattering it

translucent material

a material that scatters light as it passes through

opaque material

a material that reflects or absorbs all of the light that strikes it

primary colors

three colors that can be used to make any other color

secondary color

any color produced by combining equal amounts of any two primary colors

complementary colors

any two colors that combine to form white light or black pigment

pigment

a colored substance used to color other materials

ray

a straight line used to represent a light wave

regular reflection

reflection that occurs when parallel rays of light hit a smooth surface and all reflect at the same angle

diffuse reflection

reflection that occurs when parallel rays of light hit a rough surface and all reflect at different angles

plane mirror

a flat mirror that produces an upright, virtual image the same size as an object

image

a copy of an object formed by reflected or refracted rays of light

virtual image

an upright image formed where rays of light appear to meet or come from

concave mirror

a mirror with a surface that curves inward

optical axis

an imaginary line that divides a mirror in half

focal point

the point at which light rays parallel to the optical axis meet, or appear to meet, after being reflected (or refracted) by a mirror (or a lens)

real image

an upside-down image formed where rays of light meet

convex mirror

a mirror with a surface that curves outward

index of refraction

a measure of the amount a ray of light bends when it passes from one medium to another

mirage

an image of a distant object caused by refraction of light as it travels through air of varying temperature

lens

a curved piece of glass or other transparent material that is used to refract light

convex lens

a lens that is thicker in the center than at the edges

concave lens

a lens that is thinner in the center than at the edges

cornea

the transparent front surface of the eye

pupil

the opening in the center of the iris through which light enters the inside of the eye

iris

the ring of muscle that controls the size of the pupil and gives the eye its color

retina

the layer of cells that lines the inside of the eyeball

rods

cells in the retina that detect dim light

cones

cells in the retina that respond to and detect color

optic nerve

short, thick nerve that carries signals from the eye to the brain

nearsightedness

a condition that causes a person to see distant objects as blurry

farsightedness

a condition that causes a person to see nearby objects as blurry

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