John F. Kennedy
president 1961-63; firm handling of Cuban Missile Crisis; youthful and inspiring; assassinated in Dallas in 1963, The Democratic nomination for the 1960 presidential election; he won with just enough delegates behind him for the nomination. He was the first Catholic presidential candidate since Al Smith in 1928.
The US Secretary of Defense during the battles in Vietnam. He was the architech for the Vietnam war and promptly resigned after the US lost badly, Secretary of Defense under JFK & LBJ; expanded American involvement in Vietnam
Leader of the USSR during the Cuban Missile Crisis, he became Soviet Union leader and agreed to withdrawn their missiles in Cuba, ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation
First American in space, astronaut who made the first United States' suborbital rocket-powered flight in 1961 (1923-1998)
Soviet cosmonaut who was the first woman in space (born in 1937), First woman in space- 48 orbits of the earth in Vostok-6
2nd man to set foot on the moon, landed on the moon in 1969
Lyndon B. Johnson
became President after Kennedy's assassination, The US president who privately wanted to stay out of Vietnam but sent soldiers because his goal was to stop the spread of communism, President after Kennedy. Creator of "Great Society". Got involved in Vietnam.
killed Lee Harvey Oswald - night club owner who assassinated Lee on November 24, 1963 on live telivision 2 days after Kennedy's assassination
first African American to serve in a cabinet; served as secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development under Johnson
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
The Governor who opposed the integration of Central High, Sent the Little Rock National Guard to keep them out. Then gave them (the students who were integrated) no protection
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
First african american student at university of Mississippi, United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi (born in 1933)
Police official of Birmingham, AL. Was a member of the KKK and supported racial segregation., Birmingham police commissioner; "I got plenty of room in the jail"; arrested MLK & 900 others, Police commissioner of Birmingham Alabama; sends out dogs and hoses on MLK peace rally
militant civil rights leader (1925-1965), Black Muslim leader who said Blacks needed to have separate society from whites, but later changed his views. He was assasinated in 1965.
Vice President under Eisenhower and 37th President of the United States, ran against Kennedy in the 1960 election as a Republican
secretary of state under JFK and LBJ, The American Secretary of State during the Vietnam War, dispatched tens of thousands of U.S. soldiers to fight in Vietnam.
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927), led the revolution of Cuba and took control of Cuba in 1959; resented past dictators; made Cuba communist
Soviet cosmonaut who in 1961 was the first person to travel in space (1934-1968)
made the first orbital rocket-powered flight by a United States astronaut in 1962, the first American to orbit the earth
1st person to walk on the moon; U.S. Apollo 11; July, 1969; his famous words - "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind."
third man on Appolo with Neil Armstrong and Buzz Armstrong, This third astronaut from the Apollo 11 stayed onboard in the Command Module and did not walk on the Moon.
Lee Harvey Oswald
On November 22, 1963, he assassinated President Kennedy who was riding downtown Dallas, Texas. Oswald was later shot in front of television cameras by Jack Ruby.
Chief Justice during the 1950's and 1960's who used a loose interpretation to expand rights for both African-Americans and those accused of crimes., Chief Justice on the Supreme Court from 1953 to 1969, presided over the Brown V. Board of Education case
Black girl who was refused enrollment in the closest school to her house because of segregation., wanted to go to the white school closer to her house took it to court with Brown vs. the Board of education
governor of Georgia who vowed that Georgia schools would remain segregated, forcibly took over the governor's mansion until the state Supreme Court ruled that Melvin E. Thompson had won
one of nine black students admitted to Central High in Little Rock, fifteen year-old girl turned away from school by National Guardsmen & students; on the first day of school, she traveled alone while the oter LR9 went as a group
Martin Luther King, Jr.
African-American civil rights leader, america's greatest civil rights leader his nonviolent protests gained national attention and resulted in government protection of African American rights; he was assassinated in 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee
Governor of Mississippi who strogly opposed school intergration, blocks out James Meredith, smart African American man who was denied admission to the University of Mississippi
Director of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his driveway by a member of the Ku Klux Klan; assassinated in Jackson, Mississippi in 1963
James Earl Ray
convicted of killing Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968 and sentenced to 99 years in jail, Hired by unidentified people to assassinate Martin Luther King, Jr. He shot and killed King on the balcony of his hotel in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968. He was captured two months later in London.
Election of 1960
The American presidential election of 1960 which ended Eisenhower's two terms as President and had Nixon as the Republican candidate and Kennedy as the Democratic candidate
Bay of Pigs
Landing area on Cuba's south coast where an American-organized invasion by Cuban exiles was defeated by Fidel Castro's government forces April 17-20, 1961