Abnormal findings ear, nose, throat, head, and neck

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Hemotympanum

a bluish tinge to the tympanic membrane indicating the presence of blood in the middle ear usually caused by head trauma

Otitis Externa

infection of the outer ear causes redness and swelling of the auricle and ear canal, drainage is usually scanty and may be sccompanied by itching, fever, and enlarged lymph nodes

Otitis Media

infection of the middle ear producting a red, bulging eardrum, fever, and hearing loss

Perforation of the tympanic membrane

rupturing of the eardrum due to trauma or infection, may be seen as a dark spot on the eardrum

Scarred tympanic membrane

a condition in which the eardrum has white patches of scar tissue due to repeated ear infections

Tophi

small white nodules on the helix or antihelix contain uric acid crystals and are a sign of gout

Tympanostomy tubes

ear tubes inserted to relieve middle ear pressure and allow drainage from repeated middle ear infections

Epistaxis

nosebleed

Rhinitis

nasal inflammation usually due to a viral infection or allergy accompanied by watery discharge, stuffed up nose, and sneezing

Sinusitis

inflammation of the sinuses usually following an upper respiratory infection causes facial pain, inflammation, discharge and possibly fever, chills, headache, or a dull, pulsating pain in the cheeks or teeth

Deviated septum

a slight ingrowth of the lower nasal septum

nasal polyps

pale, round, firm, nonpainful overgrowth of nasal mucosa usually caused by chronic allergic rhinitis

Perforated septum

a hole in the septum caused by chronic infection, trauma, or sniffing cocaine

ankyloglossia

fixation of the tip of the tongue to the floor of hte mouth due to a shortened lingual frenulum

aphthous ulcers

small round white lesions occuring singularly or in clusters on the oral mucosa

Black hairy tongue

caused by the inhibition of normal bacteria and the overgrowth of fungus on the papillae of the tongue

gingival hyperplasia

an enlargement of the gums frequently seen in pregnancy, in leukemia, or after prolonged use of phenytoin (Dilantin)

Gingivitis

inflammation of the gums may be caused by poor dental hygiene or a deficiency of vitamin c

tonsillitis

inflammation of the tonsils throat is red and the tonsils are swollen and covered by white or yellow patches or exudate

smooth tongue

condition occuring as a result of vitamin B and iron deficiency the tongue is smooth and red with a shiny appearance

herpes simplex

virus that is often accompanied by clear vesicles usually at the junction of the skin and the lip

Carcinoma

oral cancers are most commonly found on the lower lip or the base (underside) of the tongue

Leukoplakia

whitish thickening of the mucous membrane in the mouth or tongue

Classic migraine

preceded by an aura during which the client may feel depressed, restless, or irritable, see spots or flashes of light, feel nauseated, or experience numbing or tingling in the face or extremities (may be light sensitive, have nausea, vertigo, and tremors)

Cluster headache

no aura, sudden onset and may be associated with alcohol consumption, stress, or emotional distress (often begin at night with excruciating pain on one side of the face spreading upward behind one eye, the nose and affected eye may water and nasal congestion is common

Tension headache

caused by sustained contraction of the muscles in the head, neck, or upper back, gradual onset with steady pain not throbbing, may be unilateral or bilateral and typically ranges from teh cervical region to the top of the head

Hydrocephalus

enlargement of the head caused by inadequate drainage of cerbrospinal fluid, resulting in abnormal growth of the skull

Craniosynostosis

early closure of the sutures, with early closure of the sagittal sutures, the head elongates / with early closure of the coronal sutures, the head, face, and orbits are altered

Acromegaly

enlargement of the bones, and facial features due to increased growth hormone

Bell's Palsy

temporary disorder affecting cranial nerve VII and producing a unilateral facial paralysis sudden onset and usually resolves spontaneously in a few weeks

Cushing's syndrome

increased adrenal hormone production leading to a rounded "moon" face, ruddy cheecks, prominent jowls, and excess facial hair

Down syndrome

chromosomal defect causing varying degrees of mental retardation and characteristic facial features such as slanged eyes, a flat nasal bridge, a flat nose, a protruding tongue, and a short, broad neck

Parkinson's disease

a masklike expression occurs in Parkinson's disease, the disease is the result of a decrease in dopamine, a neurotransmitter

Brain attack

can result in neuroloic deficits that include facial paralysis

Fetal alcohol syndrome

disorder characterized by epicanthal folds, narrow palpebral fissures, a deformed upper lip below the septum of the nose, and some degree of mental retardation (seen in infants of mothers whose intake of alcohol during pregnancy was significant)

Torticollis

spasm of the sternocleidomastoid muscle on one side of the body, which often results from birth trauma (if left untreated, the muscle becomes fibrotic adn permanently shortened)

Hyperthyroidism

excessive production of thyroid hormones results in enlargement of the gland, exophthalmos (bulging eyes), fine hair, weight loss, diarrhea, and other alterations

Goiter

an enlargement of the thyroid gland

Grave's disease

a type of hyperthyroidism that may be an autoimmune response or related to hereditary factors

Thyroid adenoma

refers to benign thyroid nodules that occur most frequently in older adults, no known cause

Thyroid carcinoma

malignant tumors in hormone-producing cells or supporting cells, excess thyroid hormone is produced in the tumors

Hyperthyroidism and medication

excessive iodine in some medications may cause oversecretion of thyroid hormones

Hypothyroidism

occurs when there is a decrease in production of thyroid hormones most commonly caused by an iodine deficiency or an autoimmune response

Congenital hypothyroidism

the thyroid is nonfunctioning at birth if untreated it results in etardation of physical and mental growth

Myxedema

severe form of hypothyroidism causes nonpitting edema throughout the body and thickening of facial features,

Thyroiditis

an inflammation of the thyroid gland, and this inflammation may cause release of stored hormones, resulting in temporary hyperthyroidism of weeks or months

Postpartum thyroiditis

a temporary condition occuring in 5%- to 9% of females postpartum

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

an autoimmune disease that is htought to be hereditary and results in primary hypothyroidism

Visual acuity

dependent upon the ability of the eye to refract light rays and focus them upon the retina,

Emmetropia

the normal refractive condition of the eye in which light rays are brought into sharp focus on the retina

Myopia

generally inherited and occurs when the eye is longer than normal light rays focus in front of the retina (nearsightedness)

Hyperopia

an inherited condition in which the eye is shorter than normal . light rays focus behind the retina (farsightedness)

Astigmatism

a familial condition in which the refraction of light is spread over a wide area rather than on a distinct point on the retina (vision may be blurred or doubled)

visual fields

refers to the total area in which objects can be seen in the periphery while the eye remains focused on a central point,

cardinal fields of gaze

eye movement is controlled by six extraocular muscles and by cranial nerves III, IV, and VI

Strabismus

condition in which the axes of the eyes cannot be directed at the same object (esotropia = convergent in which the eye deviates inward exotropia = divergent in which the deviation is outward)

Esophoria

inward turning of the eye

Exophoria

outward turning of the eye

problems with extraocular muscles or cranial nerves

nonparallel eye movements and failure of the eyes to follow in a certain direction are indicative of

Adie's pupil

unilateral and sluggish pupillary response

Argyll robertson pupils

pupils exist bilaterally and are small, irregular, and nonreactive to light (occur with central nervous system disorders including tumor, syphilis, and narcotic use

Anisocoria

unequal pupillary size, which may be a normal finding or may indicate central nervous system disease

Cranial nerve III damage

results in a unilaterally dilated pupil, there is no reaction to light, ptosis may be seen

Horner's syndrome

result of blockage of sympathetic nerve stimulation , findings include unilateral, small regular pupil that is nonreactive to light, Ptosis and anhidrosis of the same side accompany the pupillary signs

Mydriasis

refers to fixed and constricted pupils this condition may occur with the use of narcotics, with damage to the pons, or as a result of treatment for glaucoma

Monocular blindness

results in direct and consensual response to light directed in the normal eye and absence of response in either eye when light is directed in the blind eye

Acute glaucoma

result of sudden increase in intraocular pressure resulting from blocked flow of fluid from the anterior chamber, the pupil is oval in shape and dilated, there is circumcorneal redness and the cornea appears cloudy and steamy (accompanied by decrease in vision and halos around lights)

basal cell carcinoma

has a papular appearance and usually seen on the lower lid and medial canthus

Blepharitis

inflammation of the eyelids a staphylococcal infection leads to red, scaly, and crusted lids - they eye burns, itches, and tears

Cataract

an opacity in the lens usually occurs in aging

Chalazion

a firm, nontender nodule on the eyelid, arising from infection of the meibomian gland, not painful unless inflamed

Conjunctivitis

an infection of the conjunctiva usually due to bacteria or virus but which may result from chemical exposure

Ectropion

eversion of the lower eyelid caused by muscle weakness, the palpebral conjunctiva is exposed

Entropion

is inversion of the lid and lashes caused by muscle spasm of the eyelid - friction from lashses can cause corneal irritation

Hordeolum (Stye)

a result of a staphylococcal infectionof hair follicles on the margin of the lids the affected eye is swollen, red, and painful

Iritis

a serious disorder characterized by redness around the iris and cornea the pupil is often irregular, vision is decreased adn the client experiences deep aching pain

Periorbital edema

refers to swollen, puffy lids occurs wit crying, infection, and systemic problems including kidney failure, heart failure, and allergy

Ptosis

refers to drooping of the eyelid, occurs with cranial nerve damage or systemic neuromuscular weakness

Diabetic Retinopathy

refers to changes that occur in teh retina and vasculature of the retia including microaneurysms, hemorrhages, macular edema, and retinal exudates

Hypertensive Retinopathy

refers to the changes in the retina and vasculature of the retina in response to elevations in blood pressure that accompany atherosclerosis, heart disease, and kidney disease--- changes include flame hemorrhages, nicking of vessels, and "cotton wool: spots that arise from infarction of the nerve fibers

Macular degeneration

is a degenerative condition of the macula, the central retina, central vision is lost gradually while peripheral vision remains intact, the eyes are affected at different rates

Atoxic gait

a walk characterized by a wide base, unevensteps, feet slapping, and a tendency to sway, this type of walk associated with posterior column disease or decreased proprioception regarding extremities seen inmultiple sclerosis and drug or alcohol intoxication

Scissors gait

a walk characterized by spastic lower limbs adn movement in a stiff, jerky manner, the knees come together, the legs cross in front of one another, and the legs are abducted as the indivdual takes short, progressive, slow steps- this is seen in individuals with multiple sclerosis

Steppage gait

sometimes called " foot drop" walk, the individual has stooped posture, takes short steps, and turns stiffly, there is a slow start to the walk and frequent, accelerated steps, this gait is associated with basal ganglia disease.

Fasciculation

commonly called a twitch, this is an involuntary, local, visible muscular contraction - it is not significant when it occurs in tired muscles. It can be associated with motor neuron disease

Tic

commonly called a habit, is usually psychogenic in nature - the

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