Photoautotrophs use _______ for energy, ________ as a carbon source, and include _________.
sun, CO2, purple and green sulfur bacteria
Photoheterotrophs use _______ for energy, ________ as a carbon source, and include _________.
sun, organic compounds, purple and green non-sulfur bacteria
Chemoautotrophs use _______ for energy, ________ as a carbon source, and include _________.
chemical bonds, CO2, H S Fe N bacteria
Chemoheterotrophs use _______ for energy, ________ as a carbon source, and include _________.
chemical bonds, organic compounds, most organisms (including humans!)
Summary equation for photosynthesis
CO2 + H20 (sunlight (top))-->(chlorophyll (bottom)) C6H12O6 + O2
Carbohydrates undergo _______ to become ________ which then goes through __________ which yields _____________ which is later converted to _____________ which releases ____.
hydrolysis, glucose, glycolysis, 2 pyruvic acid, Acetyl CoA, CO2
Draw a diagram for chemiosmosis and ATP synthase.
done? (H+ from high concentration to low concentration, P+ADP-->ATP)
What is glycogen?
a polysaccharide that is the main form of carbohydrate storage in animals and is converted to glucose as needed in the liver
In aerobic respiration, where do the resulting 6 CO2 molecules come from?
transformation of pyruvate to Acetyl CoA and Kreb's cycle
In aerobic respiration, where does the resulting H2O molecule come from?
H+ from the electron transport system combines with O2 at the end of the electron transport system (O2 is the final H+ receptor)
In aerobic respiration, where do the 38 ATP produced come from?
32 from electron transport chain, 2 from glycolysis, 4 from kreb's cycle
Give six characteristics of enzymes.
proteins, not used up in chemical process, affected by temperature and pH, speed up or slow down chemical reactions, 3D shape (the shape is very important), under control of inherited genes
During negative feedback control...
the concentration of final products increases and shuts off one step of enzymes which shuts off the processes
Enzymes can convert substrates to a product at a rate of...
1 million substrate molecules per second
Heat is necessary for H to break the ________ bonds of ___ or for O to push apart ____ to form ____ bonds.
covalent, O2, H2, OH
How do enzymes operate?
the substrate fits the shape of the enzyme that acts on it and combines with a weak bonding force to the substrate which stresses chemical bonds of the substrate and weakens bonds, breaks them apart, and forms new bonds
During the first step an enzyme takes in catalyzing a reaction, the substrate binds to the ________ site forming _________.
active or catalytic, enzyme-substrate complex
During the second step an enzyme takes in catalyzing a reaction, the _________ are released and the enzyme...
products of the reaction; is unchanged and combines with new substrate molecules
In the "lock and key" arrangement of enzymes, the key is the _____ and the lock is the _____.
What is the function of coenzymes?
transfer molecules, atoms, or electrons from one molecule to another
Coenzymes can either __________ or ________ an enzyme during the transfer of a molecule.
stay bound to, leave
Minute quantities of both ______ and _______ are required in each cell because they are continually recycled.
After reacting with an enzyme and coenzyme to release products, the remaning substrate may be carried away by an...
Too high temperatures may _______ proteins and cause enzymes to be ________.
Most enzymes function best at _____ salt concentrations and pH values slightly above __. These are the ideal growth conditions of organisms harboring the enzymes.
When the inhibitor binds to but readily separates, or dissociates, from the enzyme, it has undergone...
When the inhibitor binds very strongly to the enzyme but does not dissociate readily, it has undergone...
Attachment of the inhibitor often occurs at the ____________ or the enzyme and prevents the substrate from binding to this site.
The simplest type of reversible inhibition in which the inhibitor has a similar structure to the substrate is...
The reasons for irreversible inhibition are that...
1. the inhibitor binds so strongly to the enzyme that it does not separate 2. the inhibitor changes important amino acids in the enzyme so that it may no longer function
________ inhibits cysteine by oxidizing S--H groups and converting cysteine to the amino acid, cystine.
Enzymes are often named after _____, but are sometimes named after ________.
the substrate it acts on, the reaction it catalyzes
NAD is a _______ synthesized from _____ which transfers __________.
coenzyme, nyacin, hydrogen atoms (protons and electrons)
FAD is a _______ synthesized from _____ which transfers __________.
coenzyme, riboflavin, hydrogen atoms
Coenzyme A is synthesized from _____ which transfers __________.
pantothenic acid, acetyl groups (2-carbon molecules)
Tetrahydrofolic acid is synthesized from _____ which transfers __________.
folic acid, 1-carbon atom
Yeast degrades glucose to ___________ and produces more yeast cells using these reactions
waste products (ethanol and CO2)
Waste products of catabolism (or degradation) of glucose include...
ethanol and CO2, ATP, reducing power, precursor molecules
The starting molecules from which subunits of macromolecules are synthesized are...
ATP has energy concentrated in ______________ which release a large amount of energy when broken.
The energy released by breaking the bonds of ATP can be used by the cell in...
biosynthetic (anabolic) reactions
Rearrangement of atoms in glucose molecules involve a series of enzyme-catalyzed steps where the __________ bonds of glucose are converted to the __________ bonds of ATP
The transfer of electrons through a series of proteins and coenzymes from a high to low energy state is...
The transfer of high energy phosphate bonds intact to ADP to form ATP is...
Coenzymes that are important for the catabolism of glucose...
participate in the formation of ATP by the process of oxidative phosphorylation and store reducing power in the form of hydrogen (H) atoms
Reducing power is produced and stored in _____ after the removal of ________ from copounds in the pathways of glucose degradation.
NAD, H atoms
H atoms are removed by ___________, which removes H atoms from a substrate, with coenzyme ______ bound to it.
Equation for the oxidation-reduction reaction of NAD
reduced substrate (H donor) + NAD+ (H acceptor) --> oxidized substrate (oxidized) + NADH (reduced acceptor)
______ can transfer ______ to a large number of different molecules in the cell, many of which are a part of biosynthetic processes.
NADH, H atoms
ATP is generated by a series of ___________ involving the transfer of protons and electrons through the...
oxidation-reduction reactions, electron transport chain
H atoms are removed from a substrate through oxidation by a dehydrogenase enzyme associated with the coenzyme NAD. H atoms are then transferred along a chain of carriers (the electron transport chain) to coenzyme FAD then to a small molecule called quinone. Cytochromes, a set of small proteins, are the next carriers in the chain. These proteins can only accept electrons so protons separate fro electrons. Protons are then transferred to the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane and electrons continue along the electron transport chain. There is a higher concentration of protons outside the membrane than there is inside. The high concentration of H+ creates a positive charge on the outside of the membrane and a negative charge inside. The negative charge results from the dissocation of HOH into H+ and OH-. The H+ is then transferred to the outside of the cell while OH- remains inside.
The force created by a differential concentration of protons on either side of the membrane is the...
proton motive force
The __________ is converted into the chemical bond energy of ATP.
potential energy of proton gradient
The membrane is impermeable to protons, but protons pass to the inside of cell by going through an enzyme, _____________, found in the cytoplasmic membrane
adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)
ATPase converts the energy of the _________ into ATP by the equation...
proton gradient, 3ADP + 3Pi <---> 3ATP
________ converts ADP to ATP by the equation...
Substrate phosphorylation, x~P + ADP--> x + ATP (x is an organic molecule, ~ is a high energy bond)
Concentrations of _____________ in the electron transport chain are low so they must be continuously reoxidized.
coenzymes and proteins
A _________ must be available in the environment to be reduced by the H atoms removed from the substrate being oxidized.
final H acceptor
In air, the compound that acts as the final H acceptor is usually ________ and the product is _____.
The process of degradation in which the final electron acceptor is an inorganic compound is...
If the inorganic compound that acts as the final electron acceptor is oxygen, the process is...
If the compound that acts as the final electron acceptor is an inorganic compound other than oxygen, the process is...
In fermentation, no _______ is necessary. Organic accepters are by-products of the fermentation pathway and are already in the cell.
The three catabolic pathways which are necessary to generate ATP, NADH, and precursor metabolites are...
glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway
Glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway all generate...
reducing power and metabolites
Growth factors which must be supplied for cells to grow are...
amino acids, purines, pyridimines, vitamins
IN each mole of pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis, there are __________ calories of bond energy.
In the 4 ATP molecules formed by the degradation of glucose, there are _________ calories of bond energy
The precursor metabolites synthesized in the course of glycolysis include...
3-carbon compounds converted to glycerol (component of lipids) and pyruvic acid (converted to alanine)
Whether the compound that accepts the H atoms from NADH that is degraded is organic or inorganic determines whether it undergoes...
___________ is a precursor metabolite for the synthesis of alanine, but it can be metabolized further in the absence of oxygen. It is converted to a variety of different organic compounds which hydrogen from NADH is transferred to.
In all fermentations, H is transferred to an _____________, and _________ plays no role.
organic compound, gaseous oxygen
During lactic acid fermentation...
2 molecules of NADH reduce the 2 molecules of pyruvic acid formed in glycolysis to form 2 molecules or lactic acid and regenerate NAD
In alcoholic fermentation from pyruvic acid, pyruvic acid is converted to ___________ then reduced by NADH to__________
acetaldehyde, ethyl alcohol
When different acceptors of hydrogen are used to produce different products are _________, and they results in a variety of products.
The products of mixed fermentations depend on environmental factors such as....
what hydrogen acceptors are available
The TCA cycle oxidizes ________ to _____________ and traps the energy of ________ in _______.
pyruvic acid, CO2 and H2O, pyruvic acid, ATP
Enzymes in the TCA cycle can use energy if pyruvic acid is oxidized to compounds with...
less bond energy
For the TCA cycle, bacteria must have...
all the necessary enzymes; source of final acceptor molecules for hydrogen atoms from NADH
When citric acid is converted to alpha ketoglutaric acid, and alpha ketoglutaric acid is converted to succinic acid __________ is released
CO2 and a pair of hydrogen molecules
In the TCA cycle, after several enzymatic steps, ____ pairs of hydrogen atoms are released and ____________ is formed.
4, oxaloacetic acid
At the end of the TCA cycle when oxaloacetic acid is formed, it will combine with another molecules of _______ which is generated in the...
Acetyl CoA, glycolytic patway
NADH and FADH either...
reduce compounds in biosynthetic reactions or pass protons and electrons to the electron transport chain
Substrate phosphorylation generates ___% the amount of energy that oxidative phosphorylation generates.
A cell growing under anaerobic conditions must degrade about ___ times more glucose than a cell growing under aerobic condition.s
Under anaerobic conditions, bacteria may use the TCA cycle for... but not...
synthesis of precursor metabolites, generate energy
Facultative anaerobes can utilize inorganic compounds other than oxygen as electron acceptors such as...
nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO4-), and carbon dioxide (CO2)
When facultative anaerobes utilize inorganic compounds other than oxygen, it is known as...
Less ATP is produced during anaerobic respiration because...
not all carriers of the electron transport chain participate in anaerobic respiraton
The intermediates of the pentose phosphate pathway are_____ and they serve as precursor metabolites for...
5-carbon and 4-carbon molecules, nucleic acid and amino acid synthesis
The pentose phosphate pathway is important because...
it provides reducing power required in biosynthesis of cell components which is especially important in organisms that carry out fermentations where reducing power is not available for biosynthetic reactions
Both _______ and _______ can operate in the presence or absence of oxygen and are found in both aerobes and anaerobes.
glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway
The TCA cycle synthesizes the following metabolites...
Acetyl CoA into lipids, oxaloacetic acid to aspartic acid, alpha ketoglutaric acid to glutamic acid, succinyl CoA
Bacteria who do not use the glycolytic pathway for degradation of glucose use the...
Compounds such as ___________ can be metabolized in place of glucose.
cellulose, sugarcane, molasses, starch
Many bacteria can oxidize a variety of ____________ to gain energy while gaining energy by oxidizing organic compounds.
In anaerobic respiration.... whereas in the oxidation of inorganic compounds...
inorganic compounds serve as electron accepters and become reduced, the inorganic compounds are oxidized
In aerobic respiration, the inorganic compounds which act as receptors....
take the place of oxygen and generate no energy
Amino acids from the glycolytic pathway and the TCA cycle include...
glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine