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A complete APUSH workout

Indentured Servants

People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.

Regulators

These were vigilante groups active in the 1760s and 1770s in the western parts of North and South Carolina. They violently protested high taxes and insufficient representation in the colonial legislature.

Triangle Trade

the trading system between the Americas, England and Africa; Africa would give slaves and rum to the Americas, including the West Indies; America would offer timber, tobacco, fish, and flour; England would mainly process and ship back

Dominion of New England

1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros

London Company

a joint-stock company chartered in 1606 and was responsible for founding the first permanent English settlement in America; Jamestown, Virginia in 1607

House of Burgesses

the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.

Great Migration

when more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic hard times

Quakers

English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania

Jamestown

first permanent English settlement, located near the Chesapeake Bay

Pilgrims

Group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands.

Mayflower Compact

1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.

Fundamental Orders

The constitution of the Connecticut River colony drawn up in 1639, it established a government controlled in democratic style by the "substantial" citizens.

Renaissance

the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world

Reformation

a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches

Theocracy

the belief in government by divine guidance

Nathaniel Bacon

a planter who led a rebellion with one thousand other Virginians in 1676; the rebels were mostly frontiersmen forced toward the backcountry in search of fertile land

Parsons Cause

A dispute (in the 1750s) that arose when the king arbitrarily decided to pay ministers in money rather than in tobacco after the value of tobacco rose; England made a joke of this dispute

New England Confederation

New England colonists formed the New England Confederation in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown's authorization.

Paxton Boys

They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.

Cotton Mather

minister, part of Puritan New England important families, a sholar, one of first americans to pemote vaccination of smallpox when it was believed to be dangerous, strongly believed on witches, encouraged witch trials in salem

Albany Plan of Union

plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown

Bacon‟s Rebellion

an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley.

Pontiac‟s Rebellion

1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.

King Philip‟s War

1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.

John Smith

Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.

Pocahontas

a Powhatan woman (the daughter of Powhatan) who befriended the English at Jamestown and is said to have saved Captain John Smith's life (1595-1617)

John Rolfe

He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.

Powhatan

Indian chief and founder of the Powhatan confederacy of tribes in eastern Virginia

Miles Standish

English army captain at Plymouth who helped defend the Pilgrim colony

William Bradford

United States printer (born in England) whose press produced the first American prayer book and the New York City's first newspaper (1663-1752), A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.

Squanto

Native American who helped the English colonists in Massachusetts develop agricultural techniques and served as an interpreter between the colonists and the Wampanoag.

Samoset

Native American leader and friend of the early colonists. He was the first to sell land to the Pilgrims (1625).

Massasoit

Wampanoag chieftain who befriended English colonists

King Philip

Indian leader who waged an unsuccessful war against New England

William Penn

A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.

George Calvert

Title was Lord Baltimore; founded Maryland as a haven for Catholics

John Berkeley

Co-founded New Jersey with George Carteret

John Winthrop

As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.

Edmund Andros

Most unpopular Governer in United States history, served in NY and of the Dominion of New England

James Oglethorpe

Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.

John Bartram

America's first botanist; traveled through the frontier collecting specimens.

Pontiac

famous chief of the Ottawa who led an unsuccessful rebellion against the British (1715-1769). Indian Chief; led post war flare-up in the Ohio River Valley and Great Lakes Region in 1763; his actions led to the Proclamation of 1763; the Proclamation angered the colonists.

Toleration Act of 1649

a Maryland law that made restricting the religious of Christians a crime

Jonathan Edwards

The most outstanding preacher of the Great Awakening. He was a New England Congregationalist and preached in Northampton, MA, he attacked the new doctrines of easy salvation for all. He preached anew the traditional ideas of Puritanism related to sovereignty of God, predestination, and salvation by God's grace alone. He had vivid descriptions of Hell that terrified listeners.

Great Awakening

Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.

Mercantilism

an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests

Enlightenment

a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions

Stone Rebellion

The most serious slave rebellion in the the colonial period which occurred in 1739 in South Carolina. 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to S. Florida. The uprising was crushed and the participants executed. The main form of rebellion was running away, though there was no where to go.

Navigation Acts

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.

Salutary Neglect

An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies. idea that the colonies benefited by being left alone, without too much British interference

French and Indian War

Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in 1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.

Proclamation Line of 1763

prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains, colonists werent allowed to settle of buy land there, this led to outrage in the 13 colonies

Revolutionary War

American colonists' war of independence from Britain, fought from 1775-1783.

Lexington and Concord

first "battles"; meant to get suppies from militia, but shots exchanged between minutemen and the british as the british continued to concord; Americans ambushed british, killing 300

Trenton-Princeton

two restounding victories for the Continental army that restored hope in Washington and his men

Saratoga

A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war. This battle ultimately had France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.

Yorktown

in 1781 during the American Revolution the British under Cornwallis surrendered after a siege of three weeks by American and French troops

Declaratory Act

Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.

Annapolis Convention

A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention

Charles Cornwallis

Commanding general of the British forces that were defeated at Yorktown in 1781, ending the American Revolution.

John Dickinson

Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.

Thomas Hutchinson

Governor of Boston who ordered cargo of tea to be unloaded in Boston despite colonial objection

Thomas Gage

British general who controlled Boston following the Boston Tea Party., decided to take away the minutemen's weapons and ammunition and they were stored in Concord, 20 miles form Boston.

William Howe

during the summer of 1776, he led hundreds of British ships and 32,000 British soldiers to New York, and offered Congress the choice between surrender with royal pardon and a battle against the odds, and despite having far fewer troops, the Americans rejected the offer.

Nathan Hale

a soldier of the American Revolution who was hanged as a spy by the British

Nathaniel Greene

Quaker-raised American general who employed tactics of fighting and then drawing back to recover, then attacking again. Defeated Cornwallis by thus "fighting Quaker".

Horatio Gates

Burgoyne was forced to surrender his command to this American general on October 17,1777 at the battle of Saratoga.

Stamp Act

an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents

Townshend Acts

A tax that the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint and tea

Sugar Act

halved the duty on foreign made molasses, placed duties on certain imports, and strenghtened the enforcement of the law allowing prosecutors to try smuggling cases in a vice-admiralty court

Quebec Act

Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.

Boston Tea Party

demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor

Boston Massacre

The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans

Coercive or Intolerable Acts

1774, closed port of boston to all shipping until bostonians paid for the boston tea party

Declaration of Independence

the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain

Common Sense

a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation

First Continental Congress

Delagates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain and to promote independence 1774

Second Continental Congress

It met in 1776 and drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence, which justified the Revolutionary War and declared that the colonies should be independent of Britain.

Benedict Arnold

Successful American general during the Revolution who turned traitor in 1780 and joined the British cause.

Treaty of Paris of 1783

Treaty Between England and the Colonies , formally ended the American Revolutionary War

Land Ordinance of 1785

A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Federal order that divided the Northwest Territory into smaller territories and created a plan for how the territories could become states.

Shay's Rebellion

this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes

Thomas Jefferson

Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.

Ben Franklin

highly respected scientist, one of the wealthiest men in Pennsylvania. helped found UPENN, served as agent in london, and Pennsylvania, became convinced the colonies needed to revolt. served as ambassador to france during the war, helped write the declaration of independence, constitution, and helped negotiate the peace treaty ending the revolution

John Adams

America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."

Samuel Adams

Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence

John Hancock

Patriot leader and president of the Second Continental Congress; first person to sign the Declaration of Independence.

Patrick Henry

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George Grenville

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Stamp Act Congress

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Ethan Allen

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Thomas Paine

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John Jay

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Henry Knox

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Robert Livingston

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Edmund Randolph

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Francis Marrion

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William Pitt

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George III

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Edmund Burke

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John Burgoyne

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Sons of Liberty

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Committees of Correspondence

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Gaspee Affair

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Rights of Man Election of 1800

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Strict and Loose Constructionism

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Philadelphia Constitutional Convention

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Federalists

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Anti-Federalists

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Federalist papers

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Judiciary Act of 1789

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Bill of Rights

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Amendments 1-10

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Tariff Act of 1789

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Hamilton‟s Financial Program

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Genet Affair

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Jay Treaty

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Pinckney Treaty

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Whiskey Rebellion

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XYZ Affair

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Alien and Sedition Acts

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Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (or Resolves)

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1793 Proclamation of Neutrality

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Washington‟s Farewell Address

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Louisiana Purchase

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Burr Conspiracy

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Impressment

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Embargo Act

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Non-Intercourse Act

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Macon‟s Bill No. 2

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Tecumseh

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Hartford Convention

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Treaty of Ghent

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Rush-Bagot Agreement

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Democratic-Republican

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Barbary Pirates

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War of 1812

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George Washington

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Alexander Hamilton

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Yazoo Land Frauds

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National Road

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Francis Scott Key

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Meriwether Lewis and William Clark

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Sacajawea

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James Madison

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Benjamin Banneker

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Edmond Charles Genet

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John Singleton Copley

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