what is the single best way to prevent the flu?
flu vaccination each year
what are the two methods of vaccination?
1. the flu shot
2. the nasal spray flu vaccine
describe the flu shot
an inactivated vaccine that is given through a needle
what kind of people is the flu shot approved for? (2)
1. approved for people 6 months of age and older
2. healthy people with chronic medical conditions
describe the nasal spray flu vaccine
1. vaccine made with attenuated flu viruses that do not cause the flu
what is LAIV?
live attenuated influenza vaccine
what kind of people are approved for LAIV for?
for people 5 years to 49 years who are not pregnant
when do antibodies develop in vaccinated patients?
About two weeks
describe influenza (2)
1. highly pleiomorphic
2. many forms occur
what is the shape of influenza?
mostly spherical but also filamentous particles
what composes the outer particle of influenza?
what projects from lipid envelopes?
what are two types of glycoprotein spikes? (2)
what lines the inner side of the envelope of the influenza protein?
describe the particles of influenza
1. relatively labile
2. not existent to drying
what is labile?
to have a half life of a few hours
how is avian flu transmitted? 2
1. through direct contact
2. infected poultry or contaminated surface
what is H5N1?
what are the four different antiviral drugs from avian flu? (4)
what are antiviral drugs used for?
treatment and prevention
how does the spread of avian flu occur? (2)
1. Person to person is rare.
2. Is it limited and unsustained
describe the genetic reassortment of avian flu
no evidence of genetic reassortment between human and avian influenza A virus genes has been found
describe avian flu and human immunity in the population
there is little pre existing natural immunity to H5N11 infection in the human population
what drugs are being resisted by influenza in vietnam and thailand? (2)
describe the current avians that are creaing more of the virus?
infected h5n1 ducks are shedding more virus without symptoms of illness
where else is the virus found?
what virus causes SARS?
what does SARS stand for?
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
describe coronavirus (3)
3. single stranded RNA
how many major proteins does SARS have?
5 major proteins
how large is coronavirus?
describe the structure of the coronavirus
what is the external halo of the coronovirus composed of?
large spikes of peplomers
what are peplomers used for in coronovirus?
aid in attachment and entry into host
where were the index case of SARS?
health care workers, guangdong
how many people has SARS infected?
more than 8500
How did the WHO and CDC control the SARS outbreak
1. Isolated and characterized virus to developed diagnostic test
3. antiviral compounds used and vaccines began.
what are the symptoms/signs of SARS
fever of 100.4 or higher
headache, body aches, malaise
dry cough after a week
some have severe diarrhea
what percentage of SARS patients are on ventilators
how long does it take to recover from SARS?
SARS is probably a true ____
what is the potential animal host of SARS?
how is SARS transmitted?
1. transmitted through droplet nuclei
2. possibly through sewage water, or fomites
what is treatment for SARS for atypical pneumonia? (3)
what is the use for corticosteroids for SARS?
to expand the airways in order to allow more air
what are examples of antibiotics for SARS? (2)
1. beta lactam
what are examples of antivirals for SARS?