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what is the single best way to prevent the flu?

flu vaccination each year

what are the two methods of vaccination?

1. the flu shot
2. the nasal spray flu vaccine

describe the flu shot

an inactivated vaccine that is given through a needle

what kind of people is the flu shot approved for? (2)

1. approved for people 6 months of age and older
2. healthy people with chronic medical conditions

describe the nasal spray flu vaccine

1. vaccine made with attenuated flu viruses that do not cause the flu

what is LAIV?

live attenuated influenza vaccine

what kind of people are approved for LAIV for?

for people 5 years to 49 years who are not pregnant

when do antibodies develop in vaccinated patients?

About two weeks

describe influenza (2)

1. highly pleiomorphic
2. many forms occur

what is the shape of influenza?

mostly spherical but also filamentous particles

what composes the outer particle of influenza?

lipid envelope

what projects from lipid envelopes?

glycoprotein spikes

what are two types of glycoprotein spikes? (2)

1. haemagglutinin
2. neuaminidase

what lines the inner side of the envelope of the influenza protein?

matrix protein

describe the particles of influenza

1. relatively labile
2. not existent to drying

what is labile?

to have a half life of a few hours

how is avian flu transmitted? 2

1. through direct contact
2. infected poultry or contaminated surface

what is H5N1?

Avian Flu

what are the four different antiviral drugs from avian flu? (4)

1. amantadine
2. rimantadine
3. oseltamivir
4. zanamivir

what are antiviral drugs used for?

treatment and prevention

how does the spread of avian flu occur? (2)

1. Person to person is rare.
2. Is it limited and unsustained

describe the genetic reassortment of avian flu

no evidence of genetic reassortment between human and avian influenza A virus genes has been found

describe avian flu and human immunity in the population

there is little pre existing natural immunity to H5N11 infection in the human population

what drugs are being resisted by influenza in vietnam and thailand? (2)

1. amantadine
2. rimantadine

describe the current avians that are creaing more of the virus?

infected h5n1 ducks are shedding more virus without symptoms of illness

where else is the virus found?

pigs
tigers
leopards
felines

what virus causes SARS?

coronavirus

what does SARS stand for?

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

describe coronavirus (3)

1. large
2. spherical
3. single stranded RNA

how many major proteins does SARS have?

5 major proteins

how large is coronavirus?

120nm-150nm

describe the structure of the coronavirus

membranous envelope
helical nucleocapsid
external halo

what is the external halo of the coronovirus composed of?

large spikes of peplomers

what are peplomers used for in coronovirus?

aid in attachment and entry into host

where were the index case of SARS?

health care workers, guangdong

how many people has SARS infected?

more than 8500

How did the WHO and CDC control the SARS outbreak

1. Isolated and characterized virus to developed diagnostic test
2. quarantine
3. antiviral compounds used and vaccines began.

what are the symptoms/signs of SARS

flulike
fever of 100.4 or higher
headache, body aches, malaise
dry cough after a week
difficulty breathing
some have severe diarrhea

what percentage of SARS patients are on ventilators

10-20

how long does it take to recover from SARS?

5-6 days

SARS is probably a true ____

zoonosis

what is the potential animal host of SARS?

civet cat

how is SARS transmitted?

1. transmitted through droplet nuclei
2. possibly through sewage water, or fomites

what is treatment for SARS for atypical pneumonia? (3)

1. antibiotics
2. antivirals
3. corticosteroids

what is the use for corticosteroids for SARS?

to expand the airways in order to allow more air

what are examples of antibiotics for SARS? (2)

1. beta lactam
2. macrolide

what are examples of antivirals for SARS?

ribavirin

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