the process of acquiring new information.
The ability to store and retrieve information.
The specific information stored in the brain.
sensory information is encoded into short-term memory.
information may be consolidated into long-term storage
stored information is retrieved.
3 aspects of Functional Memory System
Patient H.M. suffers from __________ due to the removal of _______________
-H.M.'s surgery removed the amygdala, the hippocampus, and some cortex.Dam
the loss of memories formed before onset of amnesia.
the inability to form memories after onset of a disorder.
Damage to ____________ can produce memory deficits.
deals with what-facts and information acquired through learning that can be stated or described.
Nondeclarative (procedural) memory
deals with how-shown by performance rather than recollection.
2 kinds of long term memory
has amnesia due to accidental damage to the dorsomedial thalamus.
-a memory deficiency caused by lack of thiamine-seen in chronic alcoholism.
-brain damage seen in mammillary bodies and basal frontal lobes.
-Patients often confabulate-fill in a gap in memory with a falsification.
detailed autobiographical memory.
cannot retrieve personal (episodic) memory due to accidental damage to the cortex.
2 subtypes of declarative memory
-semantic memory (generalized)
-episodic memory (autobiographical)
3 subtypes of nondeclarative (procedural) memory
learning to perform a task requiring motor coordination.
a change in stimulus processing due to prior exposure to the stimulus.
the association of two stimuli, or of a stimulus and a response.
involves a single stimulus presented once or repeated.
3 types of nonassociative learning
a decreased response to repeated presentations of a stimulus.
restoration of response amplitude after habituation.
prior strong stimulation increases response to most stimuli.
involves relations between events.
Pavlovian conditioning-a neutral stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a response.
operant conditioning-an association is made between:
-Behavior (the instrumental response).
-The consequences of the behavior (the reward).
the briefest and store sensory impressions.
Short-term memories (STMs)
usually last only for seconds, or throughout rehearsal.
also known as working memory
3 components of working/STM all controlled by central executive
Phonological loop-contains auditory information.
Visuospatial sketch pad-holds visual impressions.
Episodic buffer-contains more integrated information.
intermediate-term memory (ITM)
outlasts a STM, but is not permanent.
Long-term memories (LTMs)
last for days to years.
the higher performance for items at the beginning of a list (LTM).
shows better performance for the items at the end of a list (STM).
capacity of short term memory
7 +/- 2 units
can be expanded if smaller units are "chunked"
record of a learning experience, can be affected by other events before or after.
where LTM storage occur
in the cortex, near where the memory was first processed and held in short-term memory
where memory consolidation occurs
involves the hippocampus but the hippocampal system does not store long-term memory.
the return of a memory trace to stable long-term storage, after recall.
True or False: Interfering with protein synthesis can inhibit the formation of new memories.
Numerous signals that interact in the amygdala to modulate encoding
acetylcholine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, vasopressin, the opioids, and GABA.
How does memory work with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
memories produce a stress hormone response that further reinforces the memory.
Delayed non-matching-to-sample task testing memory in monkeys
-monkeys must choose the object that was not seen previously.
-Medial temporal lobe damage causes impairment on this task.
True or False: episodic and semantic memories are processed in different areas of the brain.
Episodic (autobiographical) memories activate what area of the brain?
Episodic memories cause greater activation of the right frontal and temporal lobes.
a mental representation of a spatial relationship.
-shows Latent learning has taken place but has not been demonstrated in performance tasks
hippocampus important to spatial learning
hipppocampus contains place cells that become active when in, or moving toward, a particular location.
Grid cells and border cells
neurons that fire when animal is at an intersection or perimeter of an abstract grid map.
can spatial memory and hippocampal size change?
Spatial memory and hippocampal size can change within the life span, and change according to gender and experience.