International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
A U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
formulated the "containment doctrine" which stated that Russia was relentlessly expansionary. the soviet union was cautious. the flow of the soviet power could be stemmed by firm and vigilant containment.
(March1947) President Truman's program to encourage nations not to give into communist expansion. $400 million were given to help Turkey and Greece; it was a response to Kennan's containment doctrine; generally, it stating that the US would assist free people resisting communism
promised US economic Aid to the Europeans if they agreed to work out a joint plan for economic recovery- this urged the creation of the European Community.
In the USSR, America made the terms hard to accept by forcing them to make political reform. They refused
Method of Eastern Europe Reform. Gave economic aid to the countries that were aligned with Soviet Beliefs. Worked to spread communism
Successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin (West Berlin) from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Begun in 1949 as a military and political alliance of European nations and the United States and Canada designed to protect Western Europe from a Soviet attack; an attack on one is an attack on all
("Giant Nation Bromance")
Modern Republicanism (Dynamic Conservatism)
President Eisenhower's views. Claiming he was liberal toward people but conservative about spending money, he helped balance the federal budget and lower taxes without destroying existing social programs.
(1949) On August 29, the Soviet Union became the second country to test an atomic bomb, ending the U.S. monopoly on the weapon.
conflict between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea- Communist) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea-Actually Democratic); North Korea, supplied and advised by the Soviet Union, invaded the South; The United Nations, (but mostly US), joined the war on the side of the South Koreans, and the People's Republic of China came to North Korea's aid.
Negotiations in 1954 produced no further agreement, and the front line has been accepted ever since as the de facto boundary between North and South Korea. (demilitarized zone)
Revolution in Greece and Turkey
spurred the Truman Doctrine and the first active anti-communist action when Britain could no longer afford to supply and they needed help with economic stability
Cold War president who ended the war in Korea
Believed in "Dynamic Conservativism" (aka Modern Republicanism) and "New Look" Foreign Policy and "Massive Retaliation" (Containment is not enough to end communism and decrease foreign policy)
The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)
investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda, and searched out communism.
Truman's Loyalty Program
March 1947; Truman issued an executive order initiationg a comprhensive investigation into the loyalty of federal employees; organizations (i.e. NAACP, churches, universites, etc.) made members take a loyalty oath
modern witch hunt, the practice of publicizing accusations of political disloyalty or subversions with insufficient regard to evidence, the use of unfair investigatory or accusatory methods, in order to suppress opposition
Husband and wife tried/excuted for treason under suspecision of communist influence and trading atomic bomb secrets with the Soviet Union
Brown v. Board of Education
court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause; "separate but equal" has no place; reverse decision of Plessy v Feurgeson
Jim Crow Laws
State laws which created a racial caste system in the South. They included the laws which prevented blacks from voting and those which created segregated facilities.
Black Panther Party
Organization of armed black militants formed in Oakland, California, in 1966 to protect black rights; represented a growing dissatisfaction with the non-violent wing of the civil rights movement, and signaled a new direction to that movement after the legislative victories of 1964 and 1965.
Warren Court (Earl Warren)
Supreme court best remembered for expanding rights of minorities and the accused.
(Also name the Chief Justice)
Montgomery Bus Boycott
African American response to Rosa Park's Stand
a belief in the separate identity and racial unity of the African American community
Alliance for Progress
Kennedy's Marshall Plan for Latin America to establish democratic governments, land reform, economic and social planning; US pledges $20 billion contribution; attempted to counter Communism
Seperated West (American assisted) from East (Communist);
Did not let people cross from the East
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island and that if Cuba attacked America, America would attack Russia; the Soviet leader Khrushchev removed the missiles;
Led to the Test-ban treaty, which banned above ground testing
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with American-trained and -equipped South Vietnamese forces
(JFK) , volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America; part of JRK's "Modernization Theory";
asked to leave other nations when they got pissed about the Vietnam War
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of anti-communist Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
A communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh
Communist leader of North Vietnam
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
for America: military victory, poltical failure
line of latitude that separated North and South Vietnam
Interstate Highway Act
1956 Eisenhower 20 yr plan to build 41,000 mi of highway, largest public works project in history
Purpose: if there was an attack, crossing the country would now be easy
Downside: did not go through poor areas, so people began to forget about them
Civil Rights Act of 1968
expanded on previous acts and prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin, sex, (and as amended) handicap and family status. It also provided protection for civil rights workers.
Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA)
domestic version of the Peace Corps. Helped bring jobs to poor communities and performed community service.
Voting Rights Act
(LBJ) , 1965 act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans, and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote
Technically known as the Social Security Act Amendment of 1965; created system of subsidized medical care for retirees, both for doctor visits and hospitalization, though not prescription drugs (added under President Bush in 2004). Also created Medicaid, which provided medical care for the very poor.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
1965 (part of Great Societ) provided $1 billion in fed. aid to advance the education of students in parochial and public schools; established Head Start
Higher Education Act
college tuition scholarships, student loans, work-study programs for low and middle-income students
A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.
Provided for college or vocational training for returning WWII veterens as well as one year of unemployment compensation. Also provided for loans for returning veterens to buy homes and start businesses.
organized Montgomery bus boycott
John F. Kennedy
The Democratic nomination for the 1960 presidential election; he won with just enough delegates behind him for the nomination. He was the first Catholic president; philosophies= "New Frontier" at home and "Flexible Response" and "Modernization Theory" abroad
name for JFK's plan for economic development; spend money on military, the poor, and NASA; self-sacrifice and nationalism; inspiration of the youth
Lyndon B. Johnson
President after Kennedy. Creator of "Great Society". Got involved in Vietnam.
the name given to the programs of President Lyndon B. Johnson, which elevated the federal government to the most prominent role it would play in the twentieth century. the philosophy of this program was that government should try to solve large social problems like hunger and poverty.
Dixiecrats (Strom Thurmond)
Conservative southern Democrats who objected to President Truman's strong push for civil-rights legislation. Southern Democrats who broke from the party in 1948 over the issue of civil rights and ran a presidential ticket as the States' Rights Democrats. They supported segregation (Also name their candidate)
Lee Harvey Oswald
United States assassin of President John F. Kennedy (1939-1963)
Fun Fact: There is a musical about him, called "Assassins"
NPH starred in it. :D
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation (deStalinization)
Martin Luther King, Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Space Program (NASA)
devised to cause space exploration, and the famous space race (USSR vs. USA) for the first man on the moon
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
(JFK) 1963, Wake of Cuban Missile Crisis (climax of Cold War, closest weve ever come to nuclear war) Soviets & US agree to prohibit all above-ground nuclear tests, both nations choose to avoid annihilating the human race w/ nuclear war, France and China did not sign
March on Washington
The march was a huge civil rights protest. It was super Peaceful- there was even black security. People made them cheese sandwiches. It was here when King made his "I have a dream" speech. The march also pressured the government to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Little Rock 9
1st group of black students who were able to attend an all white school because President Eisenhower used the military to enforce the Brown v. Board of Education decision
protested segregation in stores/restaurants, Sparked similar events in all parts of the country. Eventually achieved the goal of ending segregation.
The people sitting in stayed peaceful, even though they were often attacked
Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation
March on Birmingham
Site of a non-violent protest, where local police and fire fighters use excessive force to prevent protests from continuing.
THEY WERE CHILDREN!!!!
Nation of Islam
a religious group, popularly known as the Black Muslims, founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote black separatism and the Islamic religion.
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.
He was a member of the Nation of Islam. His promise to ﬁnd equality for black Americans using "any means necessary" made him worrisome to whites in power. Later in life he changed his views about working with white America.
Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement
African Americans have rights now, don't they?
he promised to pull American troops out of Vietnam and won the Democratic nomination in 1972
led to the impeachment and resignation of Nixon (he was facing impeachment);
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal.