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communication

the process of transmitting information from one person or place to another

perception

the process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments

perceptual filters

the personality, psychology, or experience-based differences that influence people to ignore or pay attention to particular stimuli

selective perception

the tendency to notice and accept objects and information consistent with out values, beliefs, and expectations while ignoring or screening out or not accepting inconsistent information

closure

the tendency to fill in gaps of missing information by assuming that what we don't know is consistent with what we already know

attribution theory

a theory that states that we all have a basic need to understand and explain the causes of other people's behavior

defensive bias

the tendency for people to perceive themselves as personally and situationally similar to someone who is having difficulty or trouble

fundamental attribution theory

the tendency to ignore external causes of behavior and to attribute other people's actions to internal causes

self-serving bias

the tendency to overestimate our value by attributing successes to ourselves (internal causes) and attributing failures to others or environment (external closure)

encoding

putting a message into a written, verbal, or symbolic forms that can be recognized and understood by the receiver

decoding

the process by which the receiver translates the written, verbal, or symbolic form of a message into an understood message

feedback to sender

in the communication process, a return message to the sender that indicates the receiver's understanding of the message

noise

anything that interferes with the transmission of the intended message

jargon

vocabulary particular to the procession or group

formal communication channel

the system of official channels that carry organizationally approved messages and information

downward communication

communication that flows from higher to lower levels in an organization

upward communication

communication that flows from lower to higher levels in an organization

horizontal communication

communication that flows among managers and workers who are at the same organizational level

informal communication channel

the transmission of messages from employee to employee outside of formal communication channels

coaching

communicating with someone for the direct purpose of improving the person's on-the-job performance or behavior

counseling

communication with someone about non-job-related issues that may be affecting or interfering with the person's performance

nonverbal communication

any communication that doesn't involve words

kinesics

movement of the body and face

paralanguage

the pitch, tone, volume, and speaking pattern (silences, pauses, or hesitations) in one's voice

communication medium

the method used to deliver an oral or written message

hearing

the act or process of perceiving sounds

listening

making a conscious effort to hear

active listening

assuming half the responsibility for successful communication by actively giving the speaker nonjudgemental feedback that shows you've accurately heard what he or she said

empathetic listening

understanding the speaker's perspective and personal frame of reference and giving feedback that conveys that understanding to that speaker

distinctive feedback

feedback that disappears without any intention of being helpful and almost always causes a negative or defensive reaction in the recipient

constructive feedback

feedback intended to be helpful, corrective, and/or engaging

collaborative discussion sites

web or software based discussion tools that allow employees to ask questions and share knowledge

televised/video-taped speeches and meetings

speeches and meeting originally made to a smaller audience that are either simultaneously broadcast to other locations in the company or videotaped for subsequent distribution and viewing

organizational silence

when employees withhold information about organizational problems or issues

company hotlines

phone numbers that anyone in the company can call anonymously to leave information for upper management

survey feedback

information that is collected by surveys from organizational members and then complied, disseminated, and used to develop action plans for improvement

blog

a personal website that provides personal opinions or recommendations, news summaries, and reader comments

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