Superposition. Who and what?
Nicholas Steno (1669); the idea that layers of rock that are on the bottom are the oldest and the ones on top are newest.
Faunal succession. Who and what?
William Smith (1799); strata of age-like comparisons can be made from looking at fossils from that period, regardless of geographical location.
The study of fossils; showing evolution and extinction.
Archbishop of Armagh; James Ussher (1581-1665)
Calculated the Earth to be 6000 years old by adding all of the dates in the bible.
George Cuvier (1769-1832)
Studied the remains of a mammoth and concluded that it was a once-living thing that is now extinct.
How old is the earth?
4.6 billion years
What time periods are considered eons?
Precambian and Phanerozoic
Which time periods are eras? (List oldest to most current)
Archean, Protozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
List the periods, oldest to most current.
Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triasic, Jurassic, Cretacious, Tertiary, Quaternary
What happened at the change from Precambrian to Phanerozoic?
Animals with hard parts (shells, teeth, skulls, etc) evolved, so there were more fossils for the Phanerozoic eon.
What is the base of the mesozoic and cenozoic defined by?
The emergence of new species following a mass extinction of old species.
What are the 3 criteria for an extinction to be considered a mass extinction?
At least 30% of the earth's species extinct, over a broad range of ecologies, sudden/short duration (maximum 1 million years)
What were the Big Five mass extinctions in the Phanerozoic eon? (earliest to latest)
Late Ordovician (440-450Ma), Late Devonian (360-375Ma), Permo/Triassic (205Ma), Cretacious/Tertiary (65Ma)
What are the three causes of mass extinction?
Biological, earth-based, and extra-terrestrial
What are the 3 biological causes of mass extinction?
Competition between creatures in the same niche, predation (doesn't extinct a species but drives their numbers low), and pathogens (disease)
What are the 2 earth-based causes of mass extinction?
Changes in continent configuration (ocean cycle, sea levels, climate - also; greater landmass means less diversity) and changes in the atmosphere (volcanic activity; gases can cause greenhouse warming or contrasting climate cooling)
What caused the Late Ordovician mass extinction?
Gondwana moved too far south and froze over.
What caused (6) the worst mass extinction, the Permo/Triassic?
Formation of Pangea (greater landmass = increased competition between species), the sea level fell (hurting those on the ocean ridge, sending them into the deeper basin), ocean stagnation (end of an ice age could have killed off some marine species), climate change (a larger landmass would have been drier and more likely to drought), volcanic activity in Russia (gases caused greenhouse effect and acid rain), and finally; there is a possibility of impacts from space.
What is the Richter Scale?
What is the Modified Mercalli Scale?
What is the Moment Magnitute Scale?
What is the Volcano Explosivity Index?
What is the Beaufort Scale?
What is the Saffir-Simpson Scale?
What are dBZ?
What is the Fujita Scale?
What is the Torro Scale?
What is the Torino Scale?
How do you calculate the return period?
(the time span of data recorded)/
(# of disasters with that magnitude)
What is the formation of crystal structures?
When atoms in molecules line up in regular lattice.
What would an example of a substance with high viscosity be? Low viscosity?
High - magma, low - air
What does a Newton measure? Describe.
Force. Something that pushes or pulls.
What is gravity? How is it measured?
The force that attracts matter together. Measured by the mass of the object times the acceleration of gravity (9.8m/s)
What is work? How is it measured?
It is a form of energy that depends on the force that pulls or pushes the object over the distance it moves. It is measured in Joules.
What is amplitude?
The heigh of a wave from the middle of the wavelength. In displacement waves it measures how strong the wave is. In compression waves it measures how compressed the regions are.
What is the phase speed?
Measures how fast each trough/crest moves (velocity)
What is frequency? How is it measured?
How many wave crests pass a stationary point in a given time. Crest - crest is 1 cycle. It is measures in cycles per second = Hertz.
What are periods?
The time elapsed from one crest passing to the next passing, measured from a fixed location.
What is turbulence?
Random, gusty motions in a fluid, not regular like waves.
What was the Portugese Blend?
What happened in Hope, 1965?
Buried 3km of highway, killed 4 motorists, but the trigger is unknown. It was so big it created it's own seismic waves.
What were the quick clay failures in Quebec and Ontario?
What happened at La Conchita?
In California: Two landslides (1995 and 2005). This area is prone to landslides because of the formation of the land. The question is not IF the next landslide happens here, it's WHEN.
What happened at Lituya Bay?
What happened in Grand Banks?
What is shear stress?
Stress pushing down slope