UMNs maintain the tone of _______________ muscles for posture
will there be decreased/absent reflexes with UMN or LMN damage?
will there be normal to increased reflexes with UMN or LMN damage?
will there be severe muscle atrophy with UMN or LMN damage?
if the lesion is in the cerebral cortex, will the UMN signs be ipsilateral or contralateral to the lesion?
if the lesion is in the brain stem or spinal cord will the UMN signs be ipsilateral or contralateral to the lesion?
what spinal cord segments make up the brachial plexus?
lesions caudal to what vertebra will cause LMN signs to the pelvic limb?
will the loss of UMNs or LMNs result in hyperreflexia?
dramatic hyperreflexia that occurs several months after spinal cord resection that consists of bilateral limb flexion, tail twitching, and bowel/bladder evacuation due to the formation of synaptic contacts between afferents/interneurons/motor neurons of more than one muscle
transient areflexia in the limbs caudal to the spinal cord lesion that is usually abated by the time of examination
spinal cord segments in which a sever lesion can result in schiff-sherrington syndrome
with schiff-sherrington syndrome, is there extensor rigidity in the thoracic or pelvic limbs?
obese parasitic prostitutes can spread STDs
mnemonic for remembering the sequence of the neurological examination
observation, palpation, postural reactions, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, sensation
what are the 6 steps of the neurologic examination?
a lack of responsiveness to normal environmental stimulation
severe depression, but can be aroused
severe depression and cannot be aroused by stimuli
reticular activating system
the majority of the brain stem is made up of what, which is responsible for arousal of the cerebrum?
sensory, cerebellar, vestibular
3 forms of ataxia
menace response, PLR
2 main tests used to assess the optic nerve
main test used to evaluate the oculomotor nerve
main sign that you'll see if there is oculomotor nerve damage
2 cranial nerves tested when performing a palpebral reflex
main sign you'll see with damage to the abducens nerve
flexor withdrawal, patellar, cranial tibialis, extensor carpi radialis
4 most reliable spinal reflexes
what nerve is tested by the extensor carpi radialis reflex?
spinal cord segments that make up the radial nerve
on the pelvic limb, what nerve is tested for by pinching the medial digit?
on the pelvic limb, what nerve is tested for by pinching the lateral digit?
spinal cord segments that the sciatic nerve arises from
within what vertebrae are the spinal cord segments located that give of the sciatic nerve?
spinal cord segments that give rise to the femoral nerve
within what vertebrae are the spinal cord segments located that give of the femoral nerve?
nerve tested using the perineal reflex
is contraction of the detrusor muscle and emptying of the bladder brought about by the sympathetic or parasympathetic system?
UMN or LMN? bladder is difficult to empty due to the urethral sphincter remaining closed
UMN or LMN? bladder is atonic and easily emptied
animals with UMN lesions affecting the bladder can be treated with what drug?
animals with LMN lesions affecting the bladder can be treated with what 2 drugs?
spinal cord segments that give rise to the lateral thoracic nerve (panniculus reflex)
the panniculus reflex is primarily used to diagnose lesions within what range of vertebrae?
main condition that you'll see in animals with a lesion in their diencephalon
when collecting CSF, no more the 1 mL should be collected per how many kgs of body weight?
assessment of CSF protein levels is to evaluate if what 2 conditions could be present in the CNS?
leukocytes normally found in CSF are mainly which type?