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organic compound

A compound that contains carbon

monomer

a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers

polymer

large compound formed from combinations of many monomers

macromolecule

a very large organic molecule, usually a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms

condensation reaction

a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule

hydrolysis

a chemical reaction between water and another substance to form two or more new substances; a reaction between water and a salt to create an acid or a base

ATP

adenosine triphosphate, an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups

carbohydrate

a class of molecules that includes sugars, starches, and fiber; contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

monosaccharide

a simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate

disaccharide

a sugar formed from two monosaccharides

polysaccharide

long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers

protein

an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells

amino acid

basic building blocks of protein molecules

polypeptide

a long chain of several amino acids

enzyme

a molecule that acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions

substrate

The reactant on which an enzyme works.

active site

on an enzyme, the site that attaches to a substrate

lipid

a fat molecule or a molecule that has similar properties; examples include oils, waxes, and steroids

fatty acid

with glycerol, make up the building blocks of lipids

phospholipid

a lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids

nucleic acid

an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics

nucleotide

in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base

denature

when an enzyme changes shape, To unravel the three-dimensional shape of a protein or other macromolecule, as by high temperature or pH.

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