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Atresia

is a condition in which a body orifice or passage in the body is abnormally closed or absent.

Reverse transcriptase

a polymerase that catalyzes the formation of DNA using RNA as a template

Viremia

the presence of a virus in the blood stream

Tropism

an involuntary orienting response; positive or negative reaction to a stimulus source

Syncytia

Expression of glycoproteins on the surface of infected cells triggers the fusion of neighboring cells into multinucleated giant cells

Prodrome

Incubation period may proceed without symptoms (asymptomatic) or may produce nonspecific early symptoms such as fever, head or body ache, or chills

Prions

Infectious protein particles that do not have a genome.

Peyer patches

Gut-associated lymphoid tissue present in the wall of the small intestine, especially the ileum.

Papillomas

a benign tumor (as a wart) resulting from an overgrowth of epithelial tissue on papillae of vascularized connective tissue

Oncogenic

causing tumors

lymphadenopathy

chronic abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes (usually associated with disease)

Intussusception

growth in the surface area of a cell by the deposit of new particles between existing particles in the cell wall

integrin

A receptor protein built into the plasma membrane that interconnects the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.

Cervical Carcinomas

Cervical cancer is a disease in which the cells of the cervix become abnormal and start to grow uncontrollably, forming tumors

Clathrin

Protein that plays a major role in vesicle formation during receptor mediated endocytosis; forms a coated pit on the plasma membrane

Demyelination

loss of the myelin covering of some nerve fibers resulting in their impaired function

Arboviral

diseases reflect the life cycle of the arthropod vector or its reservoir (e.g., birds)

Apoptosis

programmed cell death

Pleomorphic

the appearance of two or more distinctly different forms in the life cycle of some organisms

Hematemesis

vomiting blood

Epistaxis

bleeding from the nose

Ecchymosis

the escape of blood from ruptured blood vessels into the surrounding tissue to form a purple or black-and-blue spot on the skin

Chikungunya

virus (CHIKV) is an insect-borne virus, of the genus Alphavirus, that is transmitted to humans by virus-carrying Aedes mosquitoes. Severe and crippling arthritis

Neuraminidase

glycoprotein found on the surfaces of viruses, that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal acylneuraminic residues from oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids

Hemagglutinin

Major cell surface glycoprotein; Facilitates binding to host cell receptors and endosomal fusion

Oophoritis

inflammation of one or both ovaries

Croup

a disease of infants and young children; difficult breathing

Parotitis

inflammation of one or both parotid glands

Bronchiolitis

inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchioles

Encephalitis

inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus

Exanthem

eruption on the skin occurring as a symptom of a disease

Photophobia

pain in the eye resulting from exposure to bright light

Conjunctivitis

inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye

Pleurodynia (Bornholm disease)

aka devil's grip, excruciating chest and abdominal pain

Herpangina

vesicular ulcerated lesions around the soft palate and uvula

Bulbar poliomyelitis

more severe, effects pharynx, vocal chords and lungs, 75% death rate

Integrase

an enzyme used by retroviruses to splice itself to a genome

Kaposi sarcoma

A cancer that causes patches of abnormal tissue to grow under the skin, in the lining of the mouth, nose, and throat or in other organs. The patches are usually red or purple and are made of cancer cells and blood cells

Interferon

Inhibits proper processing (splicing) and translation of viral mRNA

Nucleoside Analofues

Modification of base, sugar or both

Viral Integrase Inhibitor

antiviral class

Virion Assembly and Release

Glycoprotein processing

Virion Integrity

Nonoxynol-9

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