Psychology: FINAL 002

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B) Carlton, who feels helpless and apathetic and thinks his life is meaningless and worthless

which of the following individuals is most likely to benefit from prozac?

A) Milca, who hears imaginary voices telling her that she will suffer a fatal accident
B) Carlton, who feels helpless and apathetic and thinks his life is meaningless and worthless
C) Amaro, who is so addicted to cigarettes that he doesn't want to quit smoking
D) Martie, who lost her sense of identity and wandered from her home to a distant city

D) remind employees of the exact deadlines for the completion of work projects

managers with a task-leadership style would be most likely to...

A) avoid closely monitoring the productivity of individual employees
B) give employees a high degree of freedom to develop their own work procedures
C) mediate a conflict between two arguementative employees
D) remind employees of the exact deadlines for the completion of work projects

D) Donah, a competitive, hot-tempered corporation president

who is the best example of a Type A personality?

A) Pamela, a self-confident, intelligent journalist
B) Jon, an introverted, inhibited mental patient
C) Dorothy, a relaxed, easygoing mail carrier
D) Donah, a competitive, hot-tempered corporation president

A) they receive more social support

one possible explanation for the longer life expectancy of religiously active people is that

A) they receive more social support
B) they have Type A personalities
C) they respond to stress with higher blood pressure
D) their sympathetic nervous system responds to stress with greater arousal

A) superego

according to Freud, the part of personality that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the

A) superego
B) standard
C) ego
D) id

D) id

accordig to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the

A) superego
B) standard
C) ego
D) id

A) psychoanalysis

free association is central to the process of

A) psychoanalysis
B) factor analysis
C) reciprocal determinism
D) self-serving bias

D) personality

an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting is his or her

A) self-esteem
B) reality principle
C) self-serving bias
D) personality

A) personality inventory

the MMPI is an example of a(n)

A) personality inventory
B) inkblot test
C) self-esteem test
D) projective test

D) Rogers

which theorist emphasized that an individual's personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic?

A) Bandura
B) Freud
C) Allport
D) Rogers

B) psychoanalytic

projective tests are most closely associated with the ______ perspective

A) trait
B) psychoanalytic
C) humanistic
D) socialcognitive

C) denial

refusing to believe or even to perceive painful realities constitutes the defense mechanism known as

A) regression
B) projection
C) denial
D) displacement

D) rationalization

the defense mechanism in which self-justifying explanations replace the real, unconscious reasons for actions is?

A) denial
B) projection
C) displacement
D) rationalization

C) consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses

reaction formation refers to the process by which people

A) offer self-justifying explanations in place of the real but unacceptable unconscious reasons for actions
B) disguise unacceptable unconscious impulses by attributing them to others
C) consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses
D) retreat to behavior patterns characteristic of an earlier stage of development

C) situations

the social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the interactive influences of our traits and our ______

A) self-concepts
B) fixations
C) situations
D) temperaments

B) behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events

according to Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences among

A) id, ego, and superego
B) behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events
C) thoughts, emotions, and actions
D) self-concept, self-actualization, and self-transcendence

A) work persistently at difficult tasks

individuals with high self-esteem are more likely than those with low self-esteem to

A) work persistently at difficult tasks
B) experience an external locus of control
C) dismiss flattering descriptions of themselves as untrue
D) underestimate the accuracy of their own beliefs

C) secure self-esteem

accepting ourselves without undue dependence on the approval of others best illustrates

A) free association
B) reciprocal determinism
C) secure self-esteem
D) positive psychology

C) DSM-IV-TR

many clinicians diagnose disorders by answering questions from five levels of the

A) PTSD
B) THC
C) DSM-IV-TR
D) MDMA

B) sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured

according to the medical model, psychological disorders are

A) purely imaginary symptoms of distress
B) sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured
C) learned habits that need to be extinguished
D) maladaptive responses to a troubling environment

B) a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal

a generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by

A) offensive and unwanted thought that persistently preoccupy a person
B) a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal
C) hyperactive, wildly optimistic states of emotion
D) alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism

A) more intense and less prolonged

in comparison to generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder is characterized by periods of distress that are

A) more intense and less prolonged
B) more intense and more prolonged
C) less intense and less prolonged
D) less intense and more prolonged

A) social phobia

an incapacitating and highly distressing fear about being embarrased in the presence of others is most characteristic of

A) social phobia
B) obsessive-compulsive disorder
C) panic disorder
D) antisocial personality disorder

C) very specific physical symptoms that have no apparent physiological basis

a conversion disorder, which is a type of somatoform disorder, is most likely to be characterized by

A) alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism
B) a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal
C) very specific physical symptoms that have no apparent physiological basis
D) offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person

B) somatoform disorder

a psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a bodily form without apparent physical cause is a

A) mood disorder
B) somatoform disorder
C) dissociative disorder
D) personality disorder

B) increase; decrease

obsessive thoughts typically ______ anxiety and compulsive behaviors typically ______ anxiety

A) increase; increase
B) increase; decrease
C) decrease; increase
D) decrease; decrease

B) obsession; compulsion

repeatedly thinking about your own death is to ______, as repeatedly washing your hands is to ______

A) schizophrenia; dissociation
B) obsession; compulsion
C) depression; mania
D) delusion; phobia

D) agoraphobia

anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult is indicative of

A) obsessive-compulsive disorder
B) a mood disorder
C) bipolar disorder
D) agoraphobia

A) deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional

psychiatrists and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is

A) deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional
B) selfish, habitual, and avoidable
C) biologically influenced, unconsciously motivated, and difficult to change
D) aggressive, persistent, and intentional

C) their own self-importance

those with narcissistic personality disorder are likely to be preoccupied with

A) delusions of persecution
B) physical symptoms of distress
C) their own self-importance
D) an irrational fear of people

C) paranoid

delusions of persecution are most common among those with ______ schizophrenia

A) catatonic
B) residual
C) paranoid
D) disorganized

A) be overactive

during the manic phase of bipolar disorder, individuals are most likely to

A) be overactive
B) feel uncontrollable grief and despair
C) experience delusions of persecution
D) experience visual or auditory hallucinations

B) emotional extremes

the prominent feature of mood disorders is the experience of

A) paranoia
B) emotional extremes
C) social phobia
D) flat affect

D) dissociation

a sense of being separated from your body and watching yourself with a sense of detachment is a symptom of

A) agoraphobia
B) obsessive-compulsive disorder
C) generalized anxiety disorder
D) dissociation

A) cognitive-behavior therapy

an integrated therapy that aims to modify both self-defeating thinking and maladaptive actions is known as?

A) cognitive-behavior therapy
B) meta-analysis
C) light exposure therapy
D) psychopharmacology

B) drugs affect mind and behavior

psychopharmacology involves the study of how

A) psychosurgery and ECT influence emotions
B) drugs affect mind and behavior
C) diseases influence psychological well-being
D) exercise alleviates depression

D) aversive conditioning

in which form of therapy is unwanted behavior systematically associated with unpleasant experiences?

A) cognitive therapy
B) systematic desensitization
C) electroconvulsive therapy
D) aversive conditioning

A) associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli

systematic desensitization involves

A) associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli
B) depriving a client access toan addictive drug
C) replacing a positive response to a harmful stimulus with a negative response
D) associating unwanted behaviors unpleasant experiences

C) active listening

an important feature of client-centered therapy is

A) free association
B) transference
C) active listening
D) systematic desensitization

A) blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material during therapy

according to psychoanalysts, resistance refers to the

A) blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material during therapy
B) expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier relationships
C) conversion of psychological conflicts into physical and behavioral disorders
D) replacement of a genuine concern for others with self-centeredness

B) biomedical therapies

mental health therapies that involve prescribed drugs or other procedures that act directly on a patient's nervous system are

A) psychodynamic therapies
B) biomedical therapies
C) cognitive therapies
D) behavior therapies

C) free association

a central therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis is

A) stress inoculation training
B) active listening
C) free association
D) systematic desensitization

A) psychoanalysis

helping people gain insight into the unconscious origins of their disorder is a central aim of

A) psychoanalysis
B) cognitive therapies
C) light exposure therapy
D) systematic desensitization

B) a psychoanalyst

which type of therapist would most likely try to understand an adult's psychological disorder by exploring that person's childhood experiences?

A) a behavior therapist
B) a psychoanalyst
C) a humanistic therapist
D) a cognitive therapist

C) uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic approaches

a therapist who takes an eclectic approach is one who

A) emphasizes that active listening is the major technique in all effective therapies
B) prescribes the use of drugs as part of psychotherapy
C) uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic approaches
D) prefers to engage in therapy in a group setting

D) client-centered therapy

empathic understanding of the patient's subjective experiences is a major goal of a

A) biomedical therapist
B) psychoanalyst
C) behavior therapist
D) client-centered therapy

A) the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of which we are largely unaware

according to Freud, the unconscious is

A) the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of which we are largely unaware
B) the part of personality that cannot process information
C) a reservoir of deeply repressed memories that does not affect behavior
D) a set of universal concepts acquired by all humans from our common past

D) tendency for standards of judgment to be heavily influenced by previous experiences

the adaptation level phenomenon refers to the

A) perception that one is worse off than those with whom one compares oneself
B) tendency for evolution to favor organisms that adapt best to the environment
C) tendency for emotional release to reduce levels of physiological arousal
D) tendency for standards of judgment to be heavily influenced by previous experiences

C) the process by which we perceive and respond to environmental threats and challenges

the text defines stress as

A) the blocking of an attempt to reach some important goal
B) physical, emotional, or mental exhaustion
C) the process by which we perceive and respond to environmental threats and challenges
D) the experience of conflicting motives that produce anxiety and tension

B) at the same time as; after

according to Cannon-Bard theory we experience emotion ______ we become physiologically aroused. according to the James-Lange theory, we experience emotion ______ we notice our physiological arousal

A) after; at the same time as
B) at the same time as; after
C) after; before
D) before; before

A) release

the term catharsis refers to emotional

A) release
B) adaptation
C) inhibition
D) disturbance

D) are more willing to help others

the feel-good, do-good phenomenon refers to the fact that when people feel happy they

A) report greater satisfaction with their whole lives
B) experience a more positive self-image
C) make decisions more effectively
D) are more willing to help others

B) expressive behaviors, physiological arousal, and conscious experience

the basic components of emotion are

A) cognition, affect, and behavior
B) expressive behaviors, physiological arousal, and conscious experience
C) physical gestures, facial expressions, and psychological drives
D) sympathetic arousal, parasympathetic inhibition, and cognitive labeling

D) a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal

motivation is defined by psychologists as

A) the cause of behavior
B) an impulse to accomplish something of significance
C) rigidly patterned behavior characteristic of all people
D) a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal

C) instinct

a complex, unlearned, and fixed pattern of behavior, common to all members of a species is called a(n)

A) set point
B) drive
C) instinct
D) incentive

A) food and water

the most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes the need for

A) food and water
B) love and friendship
C) religious fulfillment
D) self-esteem

B) self-transcendence needs

Maslow referred to the needs for purpose and meaning that lie beyond the self as

A) belongingness needs
B) self-transcendence needs
C) self-actualization needs
D) self-esteem needs

A) an excitement stage

the first stage of the sexual response cycle is

A) an excitement stage
B) a refractory period
C) a plateau stage
D) orgasm

C) industrial-organizational psychology

which profession is mostly involved in the application of psychology's principles to the workplace

A) developmental psychology
B) social psychology
C) industrial-organizational psychology
D) personality psychology

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