Used for organizing information obtained from the clieng at intake into a written report and provide a basis for determining the service needs of the client.
Process Recording (Progress Notes)
Method of documenting the interactions between the social woeker and the client during intervention.
Consist of a written record in which treatment goals and the interventions to be used in achieving these goals are specified.
Charting system used by healthcare providers and social workers. Subjective information, Objective information, Assessments and conclusions derived from data, Plan for resolving the problem.
POR Problem-oriented Record (Personal Oriented Record
Used in health and mental health settings. Permits accountability and interdisciplinary communication Time consuming and costly. Consists of 4 sections: Database, Problem List, Initial Plans, Progress Notes
Attempts to determine the extent to which an intervention or program has been successful in achieving its goals and objectives and/or its cost effective.
Exploratory (Formulative) Research
Designed to provide preliminary data on issues and provides a basis for later, more in-depth research.
Case Field Study
Involves an in-depth study of a single unit or case.
Descriptive (Survey) Research
Designed to provide a description of an area of concern or interest an may lead to the formulation of research questions that can be addressed in future studies.
Research that attempts to develop an accurate reconstruction of the past. A historic perspective is used to interpret and organize data obtained in the course of research.
Research that seeks to identify the extent to which changes in one variable are associated with changes in another variable or variables using correlation coefficients.
Explanatory (Casual Comparitve) Research
Involves searching through data in an attempt to identify possible causal factors of observed consequences.
Involves the exposure of one or more experimental groups to one or more treatment interventions and the comparison of results to those obtained from one or more control groups in an effort to identify possible cause and effect relationships. Type of explanatory research design.
Experimental research design involving testing of study participants before the introduction of the intervention and again following the intervention.
Researcher attempts to approximate the conditions of experimental research in a setting in which he or she is unable to control or manipulate variables.
Singe Subject Design
A type of evaluation measurement done on a single case to determine the effectiveness of interventions.
Consists of a baseline (A) and an intervention (B) phase.
Invovles the initial baseline (A) and intervention phases (B) followed by withdrawal of the intervention for a time, then reintroduction of the same intervention.
Involves a baseline period (A, introduction of an intervention (B) then the withdrawal of the intervention and the introduction of a different intervention (C).
Involves collecting baseline data on a minimum of three target behaviors 1 applying an intervention to a single target behavior, 2 applying intervention to a different target behavior after change has been effected in the first target behavior and 3) applying an intervention to a different target behavior after change has been effected in the second target behavior.
Research designed to find solutions or to develop new approaches to solving problems typically in an agency or other practice setting.
Research that can be summarized using numbers and statistics.
Bell Shaped or Normal Curve
Involves a symmetrical distribution consisting of a higher point in the middle and equal tails on either side. Approximately 68% of the scores in the distribution lie within one standard deviation of the mean.
Occurs when the distribution of some variable is asymmetrical.
Measures the spread of a set of data around the mean of the data. In normal distribution 68% of scores fall within plus or minus one standard deviaition of the mean and 95% fall with plus or minus two standard deviations of the mean. Most common measure of statistical dispersion.
Standard deviation squared.
Probability that a difference in scores could have resulted from sampling error alone.
Statistics that simply summarize a set of observations.
Statistics that allow the researcher to make inferences about a population from data obtained from a sample of that population.
Correlation coefficient (r)
Statistic that reflects the degree to which to variables are associated or co vary (ranges from 1 to -1). Closer r value is to 1 the stronger the correlation. .90 strong correlation. .5 weak correlation.
Statistical test designed to identify whether there are real differences in the mean scores of more than two groups.
Amount of confidence we can have that the findings of a study are applicable to the larger population from which the study sample was drawn.
Amount of confidence we can have that variations in a dependent variable can be explained by the variations in the independent variable.
Term used to describe subjects who behave differently than they normally do because they are aware they are being observed for research purposes.
Lack of sample comparability
Used when the experimental and control group were not comparabe from the beginning.
Refers to changes in a dependent variable the result from a subject's belief that he or she is being treated
Item that is thought to influence or cause a behavior or outcome. Frequently the intervention.
Outcome or behavior thought to be caused or influenced by the Independent Variable.
Intervening and Extraneous Variables
Factors other than the IV that may exert influence on the outcome
Subset of a population or a universe of individuals or objects selected to represent the population or a universe of individuals or objects selected to represent the population.
Basic unit of analysis in a study, frequently the person.
Refer to the extent to which a sample is important in ways similar to the population from whcih it was drawn. More similar to the sample is to the population more confidence researcher can have.
Systematic distortion of a sample, whether intnetional or unintentional.
Normal differences that exist btwn a population and a sample.
Consistency in the measurment of a variable. Extent to which repeated administrations of an instrument with the same sample would yield the same results.
Extent to whcih an instrument being used measures what it intends to measure
Extent to which a test is able to pick up changes in the variable of interest
Refers to practical considerations of using an instrument.
Level of measurement involving categories that are distinguised only by name such as male and female
Level of measurement that reflects each person's position/rank with respect to a characteristic; absolute differences btwn levels cannot be ascertained 1=Very satisfited 2=satisfied etc.
Measurement that invovles rankings - temp.
Interval scale with a true zero point - height, age, weight.
Statement that predicts a relationship between two or more variables.
Statement predicting that there will be no relationship between two or mare variables.
Method for assigning subjects to an experimental and a control group where every indivudal has an equal chance of being assigned to either unit.
Non statistical perspective designed to understand the phenomenon under investigation form the perspective of the respondant.
Seeks to understand indivudals in their own social/cultural context. Blending of emic - perspective of an individual who is part of the group being studied and an etic perspective- outsider to the group being studied. Researcher is a participant-observer.
Interviewing of study particpants who can relate first hand experiences to the phenomena under study.
Small groups of indivudals formed to participate in guided discussions of some issue of importance to the researcher.
Reseach designs that are ideographic - focus on indivduals and study particpants are used as their own control.
Self Anchored Rating Scales
Scales created by the client and social worker to measure progress in achieving treatment objectives.
Outcome research conducted in natural setting
Outcome research conducted in an artificial setting
Can occur when evaluating someone too positively or too negatively because of the presence of one or few characteristics.