English Romantic Poetry

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Romanticism; order

Essentially, the period proceeding (and opposite of) the Renaissance Era; swept over literature, art (painting), architecture, history, and music; was a rejection of ____/ rationality; neoclassism suppressed the ego; saw rise of individual's focus of life/ experience/ art

Classists; nature; reason; imagination; rural; animal; creative; spiritual; medieval; industrial; supernatural; melancholy

The Romantic character: Freeing of artist/ writer from rules/ limits of ________; deep appreciation of _____ and enthusiasm of wild/ irregular/ grotesque (also in art); addition of strangeness to beauty; exalted emotion over _____, put senses over intellect; preferred ___________ over formal rules/ reason; psychological desire to escape unpleasant realities; idealized ____ life, hovel people; sympathy for ______ life; liked a turning- in on self, and had high ideal of personality/ mood of self; expression of honest/ natural emotion, and use of personal tone; pre- occupied with hero/ genius, exceptional figure; viewed artist as supremely individual creator, whose ______ spirit is more important than rules/ tradition; emphasized imagination as gateway to _______ truth/ transcendent experience; obsessed with folk culture/ _______ era; had fear of __________ revolution, which would dehumanize/ take away jobs/ create horrible new creatures; interested in the exotic, remote, mysterious, weird, occult, monstrous, diseased, and satanic; fascination of __________; used sentimental _______

Wordsworth; Coleridge; Lyrical Ballads

The start of English Romanticism was in 1798 when William _______ and Samuel Taylor ________ wrote _______ ______; went to Northern Lakes District to publish books as a rebellious act against the Renaissance

Walter Scott; Ivanhoe; Byron; Shelley

Another 1st generation Romantic writer was Sir ______ _____, who 'invented' the historical novel with his book ______; 2nd generation Romantic writers- Lord ____, Mary _____, Keats, and American writers before the Civil War

William; Shoeburt; Devorsac; Verdi; Richard

Some Romanticists: ______ Blake- An artist (engraver) who didn't fit the Romantic mold; Beethoven, ______ (bridged gap classical/ romantic periods) , Barrios, Shopan, Mendelson, _________, Gree, Thykolskey, _____ (Italian, did operas, requiem), ______ Ragner (German nationalist, who Hitler favored), Richard Strauss, Liszt, Khichovski

Mary Shelley; motherless; Claire; Oxford; Harriet; William; 1818; Prometheus; seminal; framework

A woman born in August 1917, with the maiden name Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin; her mother died soon, in September (many ______ children in Frankenstein); in 4 years, father remarried, and had _____, who was Mary's rival, as Mary was smarter but her sister got more attention from parents; father was writer, who invited intellectuals to the house, including Percy Shelley when he was 21 (Mary was 16); Percy came from aristocratic family, went to ______, was thrown out for writing atheistic pamphlets, then married _____, daughter of a tavern keeper, and they had children; Percy wanted to marry May (threatened suicide, even), so they ran away and had a daughter who died at childbirth, then a son, ______; Harriet drowned herself, and 10- 20 days later Percy/ Mary married and had more kids; in same year, their stepsister Fannie committed suicide; Percy became friends (had an affair with) Lord (George) Bryon, and when he invited Mary/ Percy to rented house in Switzerland, the weather was bad, so they made a contest to come up with the best ghost story- Mary came up with Frankenstein from dream of monster; she started the novel in 1816, got it published ____; Frankenstein (also known as A Modern ______) is a _______ literature (led to other works based on it); is a _______ story (something around core)

Romantic hero; genius; perfection

Popular archetype of Romantic Period; image of impassioned artistic _____; obsessed with an ideal and quest for __________; tragically doomed by fate (maybe a physical ailment or struck down in prime of life); this ideal is like Elvis, Marylin Monroe, James Dean, and John Lennon who became famous following their deaths

Extremes; opposite

When movements occur, like the Romantic one, carried to _______, then swings the _________ way (Realism)

Photography; telephone; Papal Infalability; Eiffel Tower

Romantic era events: Telegraph invented, _________ (click- click) began, revolutions through Europe started, Karl Marx wrote Communist Manifesto, ________ (ring- ring) invented, internal- combustion engine created, Franco- Prussian War, the Vatican Council proclaimed the Pope never wrong (____ _________), Louis Pasteur found a cure for rabies, Statue of Liberty put up, ___ ____ (in France) erected, X- ray discovered, wireless telegraphy invented

Form; verse; stricter

Poetry vs. prose: Differ in ____, as in prose their are sentences and paragraphs, but in poetry there are lines and stanzas (____); rhythm in poetry is ______ than in prose (but both have it); poetry is designed more for the ear than prose

Rhyme

A similarity of sounds between words (especially ones at the ends of lines of poetry)

Conceit

An extended metaphor; ex. 'A Poison Tree'

Scan (scansion)

For poetry, tells what the metric pattern is; divides a line of poetry into syllables/ feet

Verse

A single line of poetry

Foot

A unit of measure in poetry, that consists of a set number of accented beats; 4 kinds are iambic, trachaic, anapestic, dactylic

Iambic

A foot type where the pattern is unaccented, accented; u /; "the (u) stag (/) at (u) eve (/) had (u) drunk (/) his (u) fill (/)"

Trochaic

A foot type where the pattern is accented, unaccented; / u; "Lives (/) of (u) great (/) men (u) all (/) re (u) mind (/) us (u)"

Anapestic

A foot type where the pattern is unaccented, unaccented, accented; u u /; "For (u) the (u) moon (/) ne (u) ver (u) beams (/) with (u) out (u) bring (/) ing (u) me (u) dreams (/)"

Dactylic

A foot type where the pattern is accented, unaccented, unaccented; / u u; last foot can have 2 beats/ syllables; "Half (/) a (u) league (u), half (/) a (u) league (u), half (/) a (u) league (u), on (/) ward (u)"

Meter; monometer; tetrameter; pentameter

The number of feet in 1 line of poetry; _______, dimeter, trimeter, ______, _______, hexameter, heptameter, octameter

Sonnet; iambic

Has 14 lines; ______ pentameter; includes Italian, Shakespearean, Spenserian

Italian (Petrachan); Petrarch

A form of sonnet publicly spread by ______ in Italy, popularized by Sir Thomas Wyatt in England; rhyme scheme is abba, abba, cde, cde; octave sets up proposition (problem), volta sets up resolution (solution)

Volta (volte)

A sestet in an Italian sonnet that sets up the resolution

Shakespearean (English/ Elizabethan); quatrains

A form of sonnet used by William Shakespeare and others; rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef; 3 _______ set up thought (proposition); summarized (resolution) in final couplet (2 lines)

Spenserian

A type of sonnet used by Edmund Spenser; rhyme scheme is abab bcbc cdcd ee, which is a variation of Shakespearian

Simile

Imaginative comparison between objects not alike in aspects; 'like', 'as'

Metaphor

Identifies one object with another and ascribes the qualities of another; 'like', 'as' not used

Personification

A figure of speech in which life is given to an inanimate object or abstract idea

Apostrophe

Abstract of dead is addressed as if living/ present/ human, or objects addressed as human

Hyperbole

A figure of speech based on exaggeration

Onomatopoeia

The sound of the word imitates the sound it describes

Alliteration

The use of several nearby words or stressed syllables beginning with the same consonant

Consonance

The repetition of identical or similar consonants in neighboring words whose vowel sounds are different

Assonance

The repetition of the same or similar vowel sounds within a passage (usually for accented syllables)

Anaphora

The repetition of the same word/ phrase in (usually the beginning of) successive lines, clauses, or sentences; found often in verse/ prose; favored by Dickens, Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson

Epistrophe

Repetition of a word/ expression at the end of successive phrases/ clauses/ sentences/ verses, especially for rhetorical, poetic effect

Metonymy

The name of one object is clearly used for that of another

Synecdoche

A part is named for its whole; "he won her hand in marriage"

Euphemism

Stating a disagreeable truth in an agreeable manner; a softer way of expressing language; "passed on"

Antithesis

A figure of speech made of oppositions or sentiments in parallel construction ("It was the best of times, it was the worst of times")

Climax

A figure of speech that has a series of thoughts building up in importance; "I came, I saw, I conquered"

Anti- climax

The opposite of a climax; used for comedic affect; "I've lost my beau and my lipstick"

Epigram

A brief, pointed phrase that has the nature of a proverb; "the pen is mightier than the sword"

Irony

Veiled sarcasm; it expresses commendation when the opposite it meant; "Oh, verryyyy interesting"

Allusion

Reference to some person/ place/ thing in history with literary/ historical/ geographical significance which the author expects the reader to recognize

Paradox

A statement that seems to contradict itself; it seems untrue, but with further reflection appears true

Oxymoron

The juxtaposition of opposites ("jumbo shrimp")

Masculine

A type of rhyme, where the rhymed syllables are the last ones of the words and receive stress (disCOUNT)

Feminine

A type of rhyme, where the syllables rhymed are followed by identical unaccented; DElightFUL

Slant

A near rhyme, usually the sum of assonance or consonance for true rhyme; also called oblique rhyme, off rhyme, or pararhyme

Eye

A type rhyme that seems correct from the spelling but not from the pronunciation ('watch', 'match')

Stanza

A larger measure of poetry; a pattern of lines

Couplet; closed; heroic

2 rhyming lines; ____ couplet is 2 successive rhyming lines that contain complete, independent statement (does not depend on lines that precede it or follows for for its grammatical structure/ thought), almost all in English are iambic tetrameter/ pentameter; _____ couplet is an iambic pentameter couplet that is prevailingly closed, strongly end- stopped

Triplet; tercet; terza rima

3 rhyming lines; a ____ is a complete poem in 3 lines; ___ ____ is an iambic pentameter tercet in linked rhyme, aba-bcb-cdc (Dante's Inferno)

Haiku

A Japanese verse form of 17 syllables; formed as 5-7-5

Quatrain

4- line stanza, 2 rhymed and 2 unrhymed lines; easy/ compact for beginner; an iambic or trochaic tetrameter or pentameter is most common

Cinquain; 1; Adelaide

5 iambic lines arranged with 1 foot on the 1st line, 2 feet on the 2nd, 3 on the 3rd, 4 on the 4th, and _ on the 5th; atmosphere of poems suggest feeling of things and circumstances; invented by the woman _______ Crap

Limerick

An absurd 5- line poem with an unexpected twist in the line; uses _______ foot; lines 1,2, 5 have 3 feet and rhyme, while lines 3, 4 are shorter and rhyme; are mostly dirty; named after place in Ireland

Blank verse

Unrhymed iambic pentameter; not a stanza

Free verse

Poetry without rhyme, definite pattern; does have cadence

Imagery

Words appealing to the 5 senses (sight, smell, touch, hearing, taste)

Symbol

The sometimes complex usage of one thing to represent another thing

Mood

The overall atmosphere or tone of a literary work; poets reflect mood through word/ verse form choice

Spondee (spondaic foot)

Consists of 2 successive stressed syllables; used as a substitute in a regular metrical pattern

Pyrrhic foot

2 unaccented syllables; also used as a substitute in a regular metrical pattern

Narrative; hero; music

Tells a story; tales, epics (tale of a ___), ballad (short story in verse set to ____), metrical romance (Sir Gawain and the Green Knight)

Dramatic

Comedy, tragedy are types of this

Lyric

A brief subjective poem strongly marked by imagination, melody, emotion; simple lyrics, songs of love/ patriotism, religion; sonnet, elegy (someone who has died/ death), ode (honor of person/ place/ thing)

William Blake (1757- 1827); London; Innocence

A unconventional ('black sheep') Romantic poet who had radical ideas about politics, society, ethics, and life that caused him to be shunned; he created 'art', as his poems illustrated scenes; was not widely known until after death; was the son of a ______ haberdasher, almost never travelled, was liberal, inspired by the American/ French Revolutions, and found his 'voice' in poetry; had two famous collections, Songs of _______ and Songs of Experience, which contrasts Christian innocence with the sad realities of life

William Wordsworth (1770- 1850); nature; Lake District; Dorothy

A very influential Romantic poet, who had a "______" of nature; grew up in ____ ______ of NW England, which was rugged, and caused him to become quiet/ introspective/ brooding; in 1790, he began his travels to France, Italy, Switzerland, and Germany, eventually settling in France; in 1795, he and his sister ______ were freed from their legal guardians, and moved to Dorset, there meeting Samuel Coleridge; the trio moved to Somerset, then created Lyrical Ballads, with Coleridge; the trio visited Germany in 1798-9, before Wordsworth settled back in the Lake District to write poetry and become a county revenue collector; best- known piece is: "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud"

Samuel (Taylor) Coleride (1772- 1834); prose; Devon; Robert Southey; opium

Was a Romantic poet, but mostly wrote _____ of literary criticism, social thought, philosophy, and theology, including his greatest work, 'Biographia Literaria' (1917); born in _____ to a vicar/ grammar- school headmaster, was a passionate reader of fantasy, and at 20, as he witnessed the French Revolution, spoke about social problems in Bristol with another poet, _______ ________, who he agreed to form an American utopia with (even marrying a woman on a whim); in 1975, he and Wordsworth travelled to Dorset, Somerset, Germany, and Lake District- he tried to impress Wordworth's sister- in- law- until a falling out in 1810; he then settled in London, giving speeches, but also became addicted to ____

Lord Byron (1788- 1824); clubfoot; half- sister; Scotland; Italy; Greece

His given name was George Gordon, but he is known by his aristocratic title; the most admired/ heard- about Romantic poet of the 19th century, due to his looks, his _______, his eventful experiences, his liberal view, his gloomy emotions, interesting (had an affair with his ____- ______) sex life; at 24, he wrote 'Childe Harold's Pilgrimage' and also created 'The Giaour' and 'The Corsair'; modernly known for his humor/ satires; grew up in ______ until at 10 he became an aristocrat, and moved to England; he travelled from Europe to Turkey, and his fascination with the Mediterranean gave him inspiration for the 'Childe Harold's Pilgrimage' and 'Don Juan' (Jooan); he had a disastrous marriage in 1815, joined Shelley's group near Geneva, moved to _____ in 1817, enjoyed numerous relationships in Vienna and Ravenna, got back together with Shelley's group in 1921, near Pisa, and in 1923 went off to help _______ with its independence struggle (he didn't do much there, besides moral support, though he ended up a national hero) and died of a fever in 1824

Percy (Bysshe) Shelley (1792- 1822); Sussex; Harriet; Edward

A Romantic poet who looked for truth and justice, learned much, created poems about love, politics, history, and philosophy, and for his variety and thought in his works; he was raised by a wealthy landed gentry family in _____, but had bad health his entire life; although he got into Oxford (a Catholic school), he was thrown out for an atheistic pamphlet he wrote; in 1811, he married a tavern keeper's daughter, ______ Westbrook, and moved to West District, then Ireland, then Wales; in 1814, Shelley left Harriet to run away with Mary Godwin (daughter of feminist Mary Wollstonecraft and philosopher William Godwin), and married her after Harriet's suicide, then living in Geneva, and met Lord Byron; in 1818, they moved out of England, settled in Pisa, and created a coterie with ______ Williams and his wife Jane, who he flirted with, perhaps because of the death of his children with Mary (an unborn child, and William); he died with Edward in his yacht in 1822; some consider him immature

John Keats (1795- 1821); tuberculosis; Leigh Hunt; Fanny; Rome

Was a Romantic poet born in London with ________- which killed his mother and younger brother- to a livery- stable manager (lower class); had early interest in Greek mythology and other studies, but when he became orphaned, had to learn to be a surgeon to earn money (also worked at hospitals); at 18, he began poetry writing, and at 20 finished the Keatsian sonnet "On first looking into Chapman's Homer"; was mentored by ____ ____, in 1817 finished the heroic couplets of "Endymion", in 1818 made the ottava rima (Italian stanza used by Byron) "Isabella", and in 1819 fell in love with _____ Bawne, made the Miltonic blank verse epic "Hyperion", the ballad- ish piece "La Belle Dame sans Merci", the heroic couplet narrative "Lamia", other sonnets, and odes (poems in honor); he traveled to ____ in 1820, during the way finishing the sonnet "Bright star, would I were steadfast as thou art", before dying there a year later; he had always known he might die an early death

The Lamb; imagery; rhyme

___ _______; by William Blake (Songs of Innocence); suggests passive Christian innocence; childlike- _____ (baby lamb, soft clothing, meek, little child, woolly, soft, gentle), short lines, simple wording (1- 2 syllables), basic _____, repetition of 'soft' words, lots of questions; is sung in church; Lamb of God (Jesus) made lamb

"Little Lamb, who made thee?..."

The Tyger

___ ______; by William Blake (Songs of Experience); livid _____; flow of lines are longer, words more complex, harder to articulate/ rhyme words; living is savage

"Tyger! Tyger! burning bright
In the forests of the night,... <- Forests are dark, evil, creepy
What immortal hand or eye
Could frame thy fearful symmetry?" <-Questioning

"What the hammer? what the chain?
In what furnace was thy brain? <- blacksmiths
What the anvil? what dread grasp
Dare its deadly terrors clasp?"

"When the stars threw down their spears, <- lightning
And water'd heaven with their tears,... <- rain
Did he who made the lamb make thee?" <-Reference to 'The Lamb', "Did same God who made innocence make evil?"

"...What immortal hand or eye
Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?" <-Confirmed fears, discovered danger

A Poison Tree; hatred

_ _____ ____; by William Blake (Songs of Experience); tree = ____, which grows

"I was angry with my friend:
I told my wrath, my wrath did end.
I was angry with my foe:
I told it not, my wrath did grow."
Angry at friend, calmed self down, angry at enemy, didn't express it, let it grow

"And I water'd it in fears,
Night and morning with my tears;" <- plants need water to grow; tearful, afraid of foe
"And I sunned it with smiles,
And with soft deceitful wiles." <-Trickery/ tries to ignore foe

"...Till it bore an apple bright;" <- apple = vengeance (Adam and Eve)/ knowledge
"And my foe beheld it shine,
And he knew that it was mine." <-Apple looks appealing but is harmful to him

"...When the night had veil'd the pole: <- pole = sky
"In the morning glad to see
My foe outstretch'd beneath the tree." <- Relationship has died

"My heart leaps up" ("when I behold"); iambic pentrameter; iambic tetrameter;

__ _____ ____ __; by William Wordsworth; Wordsworth is a worshiper of nature

"My heart leaps up when I behold" <- is _____ ________
"A rainbow in the sky;" <- is _____ ________
"SO WAS it when my life began;
SO IS it now I am a man; <- parallel structure
SO BE it when I shall grow old,..."
["The Child is the father of the Man;"] <-famous paradox; child becomes man/ father
And I could wish my days to be
Bound each to each by natural piety." <-worship of nature

"Tintern Abbey" ("Lines"); blank; pettiness; joy; order

"______ ____"; is a ____ verse by William Wordsworth, in July 1798 (when Romanticism began in England); Tintern Abbey is a church monastery in Wales, near River Wye, which was taken down by Henry VIII/ Catherine of Eragon, who were Protestant, when they reigned; in poem, Wordsworth looking over cliff at Tintern Abbey for a second time, now with his sister Dorothy, who is seeing it for the first time
-Copse = stand of trees
-Beautiful forest images have stayed with Wordsworth, and influenced him
"As have no slight or trivial influence
On that best portion of a good man's life,
His little, nameless, unremembered, acts
Of kindness and of love." <- Forest saved him from ______ of life
"...that blessed mood,
In which the heavy and the weary weight...
Is lightened-..." <- Forest gives him a tranquil feeling

"If this is but a vain belief..." <- "If all of life is a lie..."
"How oft, in spirit, have I turned to thee,..." <- In his dreams
-First time Wordsworth saw scene, everything caused him ___
-Roe = male deer


-Second time, Wordsworth realizes he has found a divine part of nature in himself, which gives him a sense of _____

"My dear, dear Friend; and in thy voice I catch
The language of my former heart, and read..." <- He sees his younger, joyful self in Dorothy
"Evil tongues..." <- Mean- spirited people
-In this place, all nasty thoughts go away
-Wordsworth wants nature to be a place Dorothy escapes to

-Wordsworth hopes sister will remember this experience and remember that he was a worshiper of nature

Composed upon Westminister Bridge (Sept. 3, 1802); vulnerable

________ ____ ____________ ______; by William Wordsworth; personification of city as person; its early in the morning, and city is _________ (asleep); song of praise for London

London, 1802; Milton; blind; army; volte

______, ____; by William Wordsworth; Wordsworth wishes people had heroic aspects of 3rd most famous English author, ______, who wrote while _____; true followers of God had no complaints; Wordsworth distressed by London's institutions (church)

"Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour:" <-Apostrophe
"England hath need of thee: she is a fen" <-personification, metaphor, fen= swamp
"Of stagnant waters: alter, sword, and pen," altar= church, sword= ____, pen= writing
"Fireside, the heroic wealth of hall and bower," <- Fireside= home, dower= main room
"And give us manners, virtue, freedom, power." <-Conditions that nourish hero
"Thy soul was like a star, and dwelt apart:..." This is the ____; simile
"In cheerful godliness; and yet thy heart
The lowliest duties on herself did lay." <- Milton didn't pity self, was modest/ religious

"The world is much too with us" ("late and soon"); Italian

"___ _____ __ ____ ___ ____ __"; an ______ sonnet (ending doesn't rhyme) by William Wordsworth; Romantics feared Industrial Revolution; saying world is too materialistic (we're too money- concerned); we've lost contact with nature

"It moves us not. --Great God! I'd rather be..." <- Punctuation change shows resolution
"lea"= edge of sea
"Proteus"= Greek sea deity who could change form
"Triton"= Poseidon
-Resolution saying Wordsworth would have rather lived in Pagan times or have been raised by Greeks (Greeks respected nature)

The Rime of the Ancient Mariner

___ ____ __ ___ ______ _______; by Samuel Coleridge; summary: There is a world inhabited by the supernatural that we can't see, and we're fascinated with it
-Ancient mariner grabs a wedding guest , then holds him with his eyes (hypnotic effect)
-Wedding starts, but Mariner begins telling story to guest
-Mariner's ship stuck in ice at _____ ____; suddenly, an ______ comes (bird of good luck- Can fly gracefully for days, is clumsy on landing); it causes ice to crack
-Mariner shoots the albatross
-Shipmates first angry, then mist departs, so they pardon mariner (thought bird had brought mist), making them accomplices of Mariner's crime
-Mariner's ship got near Equator, then winds stopped (he was in the _______, where no wind blows, causing people on ships to go insane"
["Day after day, day after day,
We stuck, nor breath nor motion;
As idle as a painted ship
Upon a painted ocean."]

["Water water everywhere,
And all the boards did shrink;
Water, water, everywhere,
Nor any drop to drink."] <- Salt water all around

-Crew mates hung albatross across mariner's neck = "an albatross about one's neck"

-Crew's throats parched, can't talk, then mariner sees a ship (tacking = zig- zagging process of ship)
-Mariner bites arm to get blood so he can partially talk
-Crew realizes there is no wind to guide the ship, or tide
-The ship is only the bare ribs, and sails torn apart
-Captains of ship are ____ and ___-__-____, and are gambling for crew/ mariner
-Death wins shipmates, while Life- in- Death wins mariner
-Later, the shipmates die in groups of ___

-Wedding guest believes Mariner is one of the ghosts of the dead, bu he is alive
"And a thousand thousand slimy things
Lived on; and so did I." <- Saying he is miserable/ base
-All the dead crewmates' bodies not rotting, looking at mariner due to _____
-Mariner now blesses the slimy things around him
-The albatross falls off his neck, and the _____ is partially lifted

-Mariner falls asleep, as a blessing from the Virgin Mary ("Mary Queen"), and when he wakes it rains
-Wind reaches ship, though it is moved forward by the ____ of the south pole
-Bodies rose and went back to work; when they talked, beautiful sounds emerged
-Spirit went so fast, it blew Mariner back, into a trance, and he hears demons talking
-They say he has done penance, but has much more to give

-Demons talking about how spirit is driving ship
-Mariner comes out of sleep as ship slows
-Mariner prays for bodies, curse is lifted, and now wind only blows on mariner
-"Kirk" = _____
-Angel- like spirits come out of shipmates' bodies as ship arrives home, and as the spirits ascend, their light signals to the harbor for a pilot to pick up the mariner

-Pilot, his son, and a hermit come to pick up mariner; they wonder where the light went
-Sails/ ribs of ship destroyed, pilot thinks its supernatural
-Ship splits and sinks, but Mariner is saved
-Pilot thinks mariner is a spirit when he tries to talk; son thinks he is a ____
-Mariner felt pain, so told pilot/ hermit his whole story, then was free from pain
-As soon as mariner sees a person he must tell his story to, he knows/ feels pain
-Mariner had to learn to love all other creatures; wants people to understand this
-Wedding guest is later glad he listened
["Farewell, farewell! but this I tell
To thee, thou Wedding- Guest!
He prayeth well, who loveth well
Both man and bird and beast"]
["He prayeth best, who loveth best
All things both great and small;
For the dear God who loveth us,
He made and loveth all."]

["He went like one that hath been stunned,
And is of sense forlorn:
A sadder and a wiser man,
He rose the morrow morn."]

Kubla Khan; sexual;

_____ ____, or 'A Vision in a Dream'; by Samuel Coleridge; Kubla Khan founded the Mongol Dynasty; Coleridge had this dream after taking a pill laced with opium, then started writing it down, but was called away; has many ______ innuendos, but refers to spiritual/ poetic 'procreation'

"In Xanadu did Kubla Khan..."
"A sunny pleasure-dome with caves of ice!"
-------------------------------------------------------------- -> Gets called away here
"A damsel with a dulcimer,
In a vision once I saw:..."

"She walks in beauty"

"__ ____ __ ______"; by Lord Byron; a ___ of praise to a beautiful woman (his cousin's fiancée) he met at an evening event on a terrace; she was wearing dress with spangles

["She walks in beauty, like the night
Of cloudless climes and starry skies;"]

"One shade the more, one ray the less,
Had half impair'd the nameless grace" <- If she had been lighter/ darker, she wouldn't have been as perfect in beauty

["A mind at peace with all below,
A heart whose love is innocent!"] <- Woman is sweet, innocent

Ozymandias; Italian; face

_________; an ______ sonnet by Percy Shelley; title is name for Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II of 13th century BC (great architect, said to have reigned when Moses led Jews out of Egypt)

"I met a traveller from an antique land" <- Narrator saying this
"Who said: Two vast and trunkless legs of stone..." <- Traveller saying this; trunkless means no body
"visage" = ____
"The hand that mocked them, an the heart that fed:..." <- Sculptor mocking pharaoh with face
-Author mocking Ozymandias' ideas and 'work' (vanity), since there is nothing left of his kingdom but sand

Love's Philosophy

_____ ________; written by Percy Shelley; "If everyone/ everything can have a pair, why can't I?"; lots of personification

"The fountains mingle with the river
And the rivers with the Ocean,..."

A Dirge

_ ____; by Percy Shelley; is a funeral song, that personifies scene to express spiritual/ moral decline in world; uses apostrophes

"Rough wind, that moanest loud
Grief too sad for song;..."

On first looking into Chapman's Homer

__ ____ ________ ____ _________ ______; an Italian sonnet by John Keats; Homer (and the Illiat) was Greek story translated by others, like Chapman

"Much have I travell'd in the realms of gold,..." <- Has travelled by reading books
"Western isles" = Greek isles
"Apollo" = Greek god of poetry
"deep- brow'd" = wise
"demesne" = domain
"Yet did I ever breathe its pure serene
Till I heard Chapman speak out loud and bold:..." <- Never felt like he was in book until he read Chapman's translation
"Darien" = Eastern part of Panama isthmus
But Cortez not first one to reach Pacific, Balboa was

Ode to a Nightingale; death

___ __ _ __________; an ode by John Keats; is a bird that sings at night

"My heart aches, and a drowsy numbness pains
My sense, as though of hemlock I had drunk,
Or emptied some dull opiate to the drains..." <- Hemlock/ opiate are drugs; feels tired as if he's drunk when he hears bird
"Lethe" = Greek Underworld river of forgetfulness
"Dryad" = Greek tree- spirit

"O, for draught (draft) of vintage (wine)! that hath been
Cool'd a long age in the deep- delved Earth,..." <- Wine is stored in underground cellars
"Hippocrene" = Greek river of inspiration

"Palsy" = Old- age shaking
-Humans experience growing old, birds don't
"Away! Away! for I will fly to thee (nightingale),
Not charioted by Bacchus (Roman wine god) and his pards,
But on the viewless wings of Poesy (poetry),..." <- Keats will use poetry, not wine, to 'fly' to bird
["Already with thee! tender is the night,..."
"Fays" = fairies
"There here there no light,
Save what from heaven is with the breezes blown
Through verdurous glooms and winding mossy ways." <- When breeze blows, it moves leaves and filters light

-Can't see flowers in dark, but can smell them (names them)

-Personifies ____; feels he could die listening to nightingale
"To thy high requiem (instrumental tribute at funerals) become a sod." <- To be buried in ground

-Talking to whole nightingale species
["Through the sad heart of Ruth, when, sick for home,
She stood in tears amid the alien corn;..." <- Biblical allusion

-Bird is flying away, song fading
["Was it a vision, or a waking dream?
Fled is that music: - Do I wake or sleep?"]

Ode to a Grecian Urn; frozen in time

___ __ _ ______ ___; ode by John Keats; scenes on urn are '_____ __ ____'

-On one side of vase in a nymph running from a man, while a musician plays music on pipes
["Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard
Are sweeter;..."] <- imagination is more creative than reality

-Man will never catch nymph, but she will always be young

-Passion in scene is there forever

-On other side of vase is a group of Grecians sacrificing a heifer (young female cow)
"Lowing" = mooing
-What city did the Greek people come from?

-Considers the whole vase
"Cold Pastoral!" <- Set in rural environment, and frozen in time
-When generations of people go by, urn will remain
["'Beauty is truth, truth beauty,' - that is all
Ye know on Earth, and all ye need to know."]

"When I have fears that I may cease to be"; Shakespearian

"____ _ ____ _____ ____ _ ___ _____ __ __"; __________ sonnet by John Keats, who has premonitions of an early death and feels alone
-Fears he'll die before writing out all his thoughts
-Fears he'll die before responding to beauty of world
-Fears he'll die before loving a beautiful woman
-But when he thinks more, his fears fade away

"When I have fears that I may cease to be
Before my pen has glean'd my teeming brain,..."

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