Psychological disorders that researchers believe are learned, such as phobias, are most likely to be treated with
Mental health therapies that involve prescribed drugs or other procedures that act directly on a patients nervous systems are
A therapist who takes an eclectic approach is one who
Uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic approaches
The first psychological therapy was introduced by
A central therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis is
According to psychoanalysts, resistance refers to the
Blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material during therapy
An important component of psychoanalysis is
To understand his patients' repressed conflicts, Freud sought to identify the _____ of their dreams
Which form of therapy is most likely to be criticized for offering interpretations that cannot be proven or disproven
Psychodynamic therapy is ____ than traditional psychoanalysis
Which form of therapy would most likely help depressed patients by teaching them how to resolve disagreements with their friends
Unlike psychoanalytic therapists, humanistic therapists tend to focus on the ____ more than the ____.
Instead of focusing on the cure of psychological disorders, ____ therapies seek to promote personal growth and self-fulfillment
Empathic understanding of the patient's subjective experiences is a major goal of a
Carl Rogers referred to a caring, nonjudgmental attitude as
Unconditional positive regard
A procedure that trains people to make new responses to stimuli that currently trigger unwanted responses is called
Systematic desensitization is a form of ____, which is a type of ____.
Counterconditioning; behavior therapy
A token economy is to operant conditioning as ___ is to classical conditioning.
Gina is so fearful of taking tests for college courses that she experiences mild anxiety when registering for a course, intense anxiety when studying for a test, and extreme anziety when answering actual test questions. Her greatest fear, however, is experienced while waiting for a professor to and out tests. During the process of systematically desensitizing her test anxiety, the therapist is likely to ask Gina first to imagine.
Registering for a college course
Which of the following techniques have behavior therapists used to help people overcome a fear of flying?
Virtual reality exposure therapy
Virtual reality exposure therapy is a form of
In treating alcohol dependency, therapists have clients consume alcohol that contains a nausea-producing drug.
Connor is constantly chewing tobacco. To reduce his appetite for this product, a behavior therapist would most likely use
Therapists practice ______ by using positive reinforces to reward closer and closer approximations of a desired behavior.
Which of the following is the best description of behavior modification?
Patients' actions are influenced by controlling the consequences of those actions
A token economy represents an application of the principles of
The assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions is most clearly central to
Cognitive therapists would be most likely to encourage depressed clients to
Stop blaming themselves for negative circumstances beyond their control
Dylan is a second-year undergraduate who feels so incompetent that he believes his life is worthless and hopeless. Dylan would profit the most from
Beck's cognitive therapy
Group therapy is typically more effective than individual therapy for
Enabling people to discover that others have problems similar to their own
Which form of therapy is most likely to emphasize the importance of examining a person's role within a social system?
By overestimating the actual benefits of their psychotherapeutic threatment, clients are most likely attempting to satisfy their motivation for
The placebo effect refers to
The beneficial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective
In the 1950s, Hans Eysenck challenged the effectiveness of psychotherapy because it appeared to be
No more beneficial than no treatment at all
Research has shown that clients' level of satisfaction with psychotherapy
Is unrelated to the level of training and experience of their therapists
Ron is a 22-year-old mechanic who suffers from claustrophobia. The most effect way to treat Ron's problem would involve _____ therapy.
Rapidly moving one's eyes while recalling traumatic experiences is most descriptive of
Light exposure therapy was developed to relieve symptoms of
Psychologist with expertise in research, the assessment of psychological disorders. And the practice of psychotherapy are typically
Psychopharmacology involves the study of how
Drugs affect mind and behavior
One group of ocean voyagers is given a new but untested pill for seasickness and a second group is given an inactive pill. Neither the voyagers nor the experimental researchers know which group has received the new pill. In this experiment, the investigators are making use of
The double-blind technique
Double-blind studies enable researchers to assess the extent to which drug therapy outcomes are attributable to
The placebo effect
Xanax and Ativan are ____ drugs.
Xanax would most likely be prescribed in order to help
Jerome overcome feelings of nervous apprehension and an inability to relax.
Which of the following individuals is most likely to benefit from Prozac?
Shannon, who feels helpless and apathetic and thinks her life is meaningless and worthless
Removing or destroying brain tissue
Professor Bensfield emphasizes that recovery from bipolar disorder involves a continuous interplay among patients' physical reactions to mood-stabilizing drugs, their positive expectations that their lives will improve, and the supportive responses of patients' families and friends. The professor's emphasis best illustrates a(n) ______ approach to therapy.
Dr. Judd is convinced that psychological disorders result largely from stressful social situations rather than from disturbances within the individual personality. Dr. Judd's belief is most consistent with the assumptions that underlie
Preventive mental health
Preventive mental health attempts to reduce the incidence of psychological disorders by
Establishing programs to alleviate poverty and other demoralizing situations
Transference refers to a client's
Expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier life relationships
Lynn has begun to buy small gifts for her therapist, and she feels extremely jealous of the time he spends with his other patients. To a psychoanalyst, this is most indicative of
Humanistic therapists are likely to teach clients to
Take more responsibility for their own feelings and actions
Carl Rogers encouraged client-centered therapists to ____ during the process of therapy.
Genuinely express their own true feelings
The healing power of insight and self-awareness is LEAST likely to be emphasized by _____ therapists.
Systematic desensitization involves
Associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli.
In a therapeutic setting, a client who wants to lose weight eats some favorite foods laced with a nausea-producing drug. Yet, outside the therapist's office, the client knows he or she can eat those foods without fear of nausea. This awareness contributes to the limited effectiveness of
Reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors is most central to the process of
Several years after his wife's death, Mr. Stattler remains incapacitated by feelings of guilt and sadness. To reduce Mr. Stattler's depression, a therapist is actively encouraging him to stop blaming himself for not being able to prevent his wife's death. The therapist's approach is most representative of
Stress inoculation training focuses on helping people to
Replace negative self-talk with more positive comments
Which form of psychotherapy is LEAST likely to occur in therapist-led small groups?
People often enter psychotherapy during a period of crisis in their lives. This helps us understand why they
Tend to overestimate the effectiveness of their psychotherapy
Although Shawn felt terribly depressed when he began psychotherapy, he was much happier by the time he had completed therapy. It would be reasonable to attribute some of his improvement to
Regression toward the mean
The best outcome studies for evaluating the effectiveness of psychotherapy typically use
Randomized clinical trials.
Meta-analysis refers to
A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies.
Controlled research studies indicate that the value of EMDR is in part due to the effectiveness of:
A common ingredient underlying the success of diverse psychotherapies is the
Client's expectation that psychotherapy will make things better
Which form of therapy has more directly contributed to the sharp reduction in the number of residents in U.S. mental hospitals?
Prozac is an antidepressant drug that partially blocks the reabsorption and removal of ____ from synapses.
Lithium is often an effective _____ drug.
Adelle's feelings of unhappiness, low self-esteem, and hopelessness have become so extreme that she has attempted suicide. Which of the following treatments is likely to provide her with the quickest relief from her misery?
Treating our mind and body as independent entities seems especially inappropriate to those who take a _____ approach to therapy