Psychology Exam 4 #2

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Psychological disorders that researchers believe are learned, such as phobias, are most likely to be treated with

psychotherapy

Mental health therapies that involve prescribed drugs or other procedures that act directly on a patients nervous systems are

Biomedical therapies

A therapist who takes an eclectic approach is one who

Uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic approaches

The first psychological therapy was introduced by

Sigmund Freud

A central therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis is

Free associations

According to psychoanalysts, resistance refers to the

Blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material during therapy

An important component of psychoanalysis is

Dream analysis

To understand his patients' repressed conflicts, Freud sought to identify the _____ of their dreams

Latent content

Which form of therapy is most likely to be criticized for offering interpretations that cannot be proven or disproven

psychoanalysis

Psychodynamic therapy is ____ than traditional psychoanalysis

briefer

Which form of therapy would most likely help depressed patients by teaching them how to resolve disagreements with their friends

Interpersonal psychotherapy

Unlike psychoanalytic therapists, humanistic therapists tend to focus on the ____ more than the ____.

Present; past

Instead of focusing on the cure of psychological disorders, ____ therapies seek to promote personal growth and self-fulfillment

humanistic

Empathic understanding of the patient's subjective experiences is a major goal of a

Client-centered therapist

Carl Rogers referred to a caring, nonjudgmental attitude as

Unconditional positive regard

A procedure that trains people to make new responses to stimuli that currently trigger unwanted responses is called

Counterconditioning

Systematic desensitization is a form of ____, which is a type of ____.

Counterconditioning; behavior therapy

A token economy is to operant conditioning as ___ is to classical conditioning.

Systematic desensitization

Gina is so fearful of taking tests for college courses that she experiences mild anxiety when registering for a course, intense anxiety when studying for a test, and extreme anziety when answering actual test questions. Her greatest fear, however, is experienced while waiting for a professor to and out tests. During the process of systematically desensitizing her test anxiety, the therapist is likely to ask Gina first to imagine.

Registering for a college course

Which of the following techniques have behavior therapists used to help people overcome a fear of flying?

Virtual reality exposure therapy

Virtual reality exposure therapy is a form of

Systematic desensitization

In treating alcohol dependency, therapists have clients consume alcohol that contains a nausea-producing drug.

Aversive conditioning

Connor is constantly chewing tobacco. To reduce his appetite for this product, a behavior therapist would most likely use

Aversive conditioning

Therapists practice ______ by using positive reinforces to reward closer and closer approximations of a desired behavior.

Behavior modification

Which of the following is the best description of behavior modification?

Patients' actions are influenced by controlling the consequences of those actions

A token economy represents an application of the principles of

Operant conditioning

The assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions is most clearly central to

Cognitive therapies

Cognitive therapists would be most likely to encourage depressed clients to

Stop blaming themselves for negative circumstances beyond their control

Dylan is a second-year undergraduate who feels so incompetent that he believes his life is worthless and hopeless. Dylan would profit the most from

Beck's cognitive therapy

Group therapy is typically more effective than individual therapy for

Enabling people to discover that others have problems similar to their own

Which form of therapy is most likely to emphasize the importance of examining a person's role within a social system?

Family therapy

By overestimating the actual benefits of their psychotherapeutic threatment, clients are most likely attempting to satisfy their motivation for

Self-justification

The placebo effect refers to

The beneficial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective

In the 1950s, Hans Eysenck challenged the effectiveness of psychotherapy because it appeared to be

No more beneficial than no treatment at all

Research has shown that clients' level of satisfaction with psychotherapy

Is unrelated to the level of training and experience of their therapists

Ron is a 22-year-old mechanic who suffers from claustrophobia. The most effect way to treat Ron's problem would involve _____ therapy.

Behavior

Rapidly moving one's eyes while recalling traumatic experiences is most descriptive of

EMDR

Light exposure therapy was developed to relieve symptoms of

Depression

Psychologist with expertise in research, the assessment of psychological disorders. And the practice of psychotherapy are typically

Clinical psychologists

Psychopharmacology involves the study of how

Drugs affect mind and behavior

One group of ocean voyagers is given a new but untested pill for seasickness and a second group is given an inactive pill. Neither the voyagers nor the experimental researchers know which group has received the new pill. In this experiment, the investigators are making use of

The double-blind technique

Double-blind studies enable researchers to assess the extent to which drug therapy outcomes are attributable to

The placebo effect

Xanax and Ativan are ____ drugs.

Antianxiety

Xanax would most likely be prescribed in order to help

Jerome overcome feelings of nervous apprehension and an inability to relax.

Which of the following individuals is most likely to benefit from Prozac?

Shannon, who feels helpless and apathetic and thinks her life is meaningless and worthless

Psychosurgery involves

Removing or destroying brain tissue

Professor Bensfield emphasizes that recovery from bipolar disorder involves a continuous interplay among patients' physical reactions to mood-stabilizing drugs, their positive expectations that their lives will improve, and the supportive responses of patients' families and friends. The professor's emphasis best illustrates a(n) ______ approach to therapy.

Biopsychosocial

Dr. Judd is convinced that psychological disorders result largely from stressful social situations rather than from disturbances within the individual personality. Dr. Judd's belief is most consistent with the assumptions that underlie

Preventive mental health

Preventive mental health attempts to reduce the incidence of psychological disorders by

Establishing programs to alleviate poverty and other demoralizing situations

Transference refers to a client's

Expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier life relationships

Lynn has begun to buy small gifts for her therapist, and she feels extremely jealous of the time he spends with his other patients. To a psychoanalyst, this is most indicative of

Transference

Humanistic therapists are likely to teach clients to

Take more responsibility for their own feelings and actions

Carl Rogers encouraged client-centered therapists to ____ during the process of therapy.

Genuinely express their own true feelings

The healing power of insight and self-awareness is LEAST likely to be emphasized by _____ therapists.

Behavior

Systematic desensitization involves

Associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli.

In a therapeutic setting, a client who wants to lose weight eats some favorite foods laced with a nausea-producing drug. Yet, outside the therapist's office, the client knows he or she can eat those foods without fear of nausea. This awareness contributes to the limited effectiveness of

Aversive conditioning

Reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors is most central to the process of

Behavior modification

Several years after his wife's death, Mr. Stattler remains incapacitated by feelings of guilt and sadness. To reduce Mr. Stattler's depression, a therapist is actively encouraging him to stop blaming himself for not being able to prevent his wife's death. The therapist's approach is most representative of

Cognitive therapy

Stress inoculation training focuses on helping people to

Replace negative self-talk with more positive comments

Which form of psychotherapy is LEAST likely to occur in therapist-led small groups?

Psychoanalysis

People often enter psychotherapy during a period of crisis in their lives. This helps us understand why they

Tend to overestimate the effectiveness of their psychotherapy

Although Shawn felt terribly depressed when he began psychotherapy, he was much happier by the time he had completed therapy. It would be reasonable to attribute some of his improvement to

Regression toward the mean

The best outcome studies for evaluating the effectiveness of psychotherapy typically use

Randomized clinical trials.

Meta-analysis refers to

A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies.

Controlled research studies indicate that the value of EMDR is in part due to the effectiveness of:

Exposure therapy

A common ingredient underlying the success of diverse psychotherapies is the

Client's expectation that psychotherapy will make things better

Which form of therapy has more directly contributed to the sharp reduction in the number of residents in U.S. mental hospitals?

Drug therapy

Prozac is an antidepressant drug that partially blocks the reabsorption and removal of ____ from synapses.

Serotonin

Lithium is often an effective _____ drug.

Mood-stabilizing

Adelle's feelings of unhappiness, low self-esteem, and hopelessness have become so extreme that she has attempted suicide. Which of the following treatments is likely to provide her with the quickest relief from her misery?

Electroconvulsive therapy

Treating our mind and body as independent entities seems especially inappropriate to those who take a _____ approach to therapy

Biopsychosocial

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