student, householder, forest dweller, wandering ascetic
four stages of life
stage of life from puberty to marriage; learning
stage of life from marriage to first grandson; career and raising family
stage of life from first grandson until fully detached from the world; separated self from life and world in order to detach
stage of life after detachment in forest dweller stage; forest dweller is ready to return to society, but remains separated from the social distractions of life
bliss of moksha, harmony with dharma, material success, sensual pleasure
four goals of life
bliss of moksha
goal of life that is the most fulfilling; meditation and detachment from this life
harmony with dharma
a goal of life when a person follows their dharma perfectly
goal of life dealing with pursuit of wealth and power
least fulfilling goal of life - pursuit of physical/emotional pleasure
Are the four goals of life all accepted as valid goals?
Because people have different talents and strengths
Why are there three paths to liberation?
to be active, to gain knowledge, to experience emotional attachment
the three different tendencies of the human person
For the active, karma marga
What is the first path? Hindu name?
in accordance with dharma
How does one live his life in the first path?
What is the attitude of one in the first path?
For the philosophical, jnana marga
What is the second path? Hindu name?
The path of jnana marga involves heavy _ and _.
Who most practices the path of jnana marga?
true nature of reality
What knowledge is sought after?
finding Brahman within yourself
What does inward journey mean?
beyond knowing the subject matter; you don't know reality, you experience it. you live it.
What is the difference between knowing about something and experiencing it? How does it relate to reality?
a school of philosophy most faithful to monism
cosmic illusion; you're not in an actual world
What did Shankara say about maya?
for the emotional, bhakti marga
What is the third path? Hindu name?
direct energy on good works instead of being focused on yourself
What does "directs spiritual energy outward through worship" mean?
shrines, sacred fire, clay figurines
items of hindu household
Do Hindus worship clay idols?
to conduct ceremonies and festivals
role of the priest
it is given a funeral and destroyed because that is the cycle of life
What happens to the life-size image of a god after a festival? Why?
pilgrimages are a type of _
Most sacred river to Hindus; washing in river cleanses all sin
what do cows represent?
they provide a lot
why are cows seen as a mother?
even though it is a secular state, religion is very important
what does the state of india look like to the hindu person?
doesn't enforce religion
what is a secular state?
what does patriarchal mean?
a woman's dharma requires her to be obedient to men
what does a woman's dharma do?
burning of widows; outlawed in 1829
medieval Hindu philosopher; taught that all things are maya