ap psych ch 12-17

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emotion

a response of the whole organism, involving physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience

James-Lange theory

the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

Cannon-Bard theory

the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion

two-factor theory

Schachter-Singer's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal

right frontal lobe

the area of the brain which people experiencing negative emotions or depression show increased activity

left frontal lobe

the area of the brain in which people experiencing positive moods show increased activity

nucleus accumbens

the cluster of neurons that lights up when people experience pleasure

polygraph

a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes)

personality

an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, acting and feeling

free association

in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarassing

psychoanalysis

Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

unconscious

according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware

object relations theorists

contemporary psychologists who presume that our early childhood relations with parents, caregivers, and everything else influence our developing identity, personality and frailties

identification

the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos

fixation

according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved

Oedipus complex

according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred toward his father

Electra complex

the female version of the Oedipus complex

psychosexual stages

the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

erogenous zone

according to Freud, a distinct pleasure-sensitive area of the body on which the id's energies focus during psychosexual stages

superego

the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations

ego

the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain

id

contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives; operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification

latency

the psychosexual stage in which, according to Freud, sexual feelings are repressed

repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defence mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories from consciousness

defence mechanisms

in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

regression

psychoanalytic defence mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated

reaction formation

psychoanalytic defence mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites

projection

psychoanalytic defence mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others

rationalization

defence mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions

displacement

psychoanalytic defence mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet

neo-Freudian

pioneering psychoanalysts who revised Freud's ideas to place less emphasis on sex and aggression and more on the conscious mind's role in interpreting experience

inferiority complex

Adler's idea that much of our behavior is driven by efforts to conquer childhood feelings of inferiority, feelings that trigger our strivings for superiority and power

preconscious

according to Freud, an area in which we store thoughts, feelings and memories from which we can retrieve them into conscious awareness

4-5

the age (in years) at which the superego characteristically develops

oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

the psychosexual stages, in order of development

Adler

this neo-Freudian emphasized social, rather than sexual, tensions of childhood, and said that much of behavior is driven by the need to overcome feelings of inferiority

Horney

this neo-Freudian questioned the male bias in Freud's theory, such as the assumptions that women have weak egos and suffer "penis envy"; also emphasized social tensions

collective unconscious

Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history

psychodynamic theory

the contemporary theory that much of our mental life is unconscious, that we often struggle with inner conflicts among our wishes, fears and values, and that childhood shapes our personalities

projective test

a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics

Thematic Apperception Test

a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

Rorschach inkblot test

the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots

implicit learning

learning without conscious awareness of what is learned

terror-management theory

proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death

self-actualization

according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential

unconditional positive regard

according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person

self-concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "who am I?"

trait

a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports

personality inventory

a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening questions

empirically derived test

a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups

conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion

the "Big Five" of personality traits, arranged by the textbook's mnemonic

conscientiousness

this personality trait increases during peoples' twenties

agreeableness

this personality trait increases from people's thirties to their sixties

person-situation controversy

the issue of whether human behavior is influenced more by inner disposition or external environment

social-cognitive perspective

views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context

Bandura

psychologist that proposed the social-cognitive perspective

reciprocal determinism

the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors

personal control

our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless

internal locus of control

the perception that one controls one's own fate

external locus of control

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate

learned helplessness

the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events

attributional style

our characteristic manner of explaining negative or positive events

positive psychology

the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive

possible selves

the concept that we have visions of the self we dream of becoming and those we fear becoming

spotlight effect

overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders

self-esteem

one's feelings of low or high self-worth

self-serving bias

a readiness to perceive oneself favorably

defensive self-esteem

this type of self-worth is fragile, focuses on sustaining itself, is vulnerable to criticism, and correlates with aggressive and anti-social behavior

secure self-esteem

this type of self-worth is less fragile, less contingent on external evaluations, and enables us to focus beyond ourself

450 million

the number of people worldwide that suffer from psychological disorders

psychological disorder

deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity

medical model

the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated and, in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, assumes that these mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy

Philippe Pinel

one of the earliest advocates of the medical model and humane treatment of the mentally ill

depression, schizophrenia

two major disorders that are universal regardless of culture

DSM-IV

the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition), a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.

generalized anxiety disorder

an anxiety disorder in which a person is constantly tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

anxiety disorders

psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

panic attack

a minutes-long episode of intense fear

panic disorder

an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations

phobia

an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation

social phobia

an intense fear of being scrutinized by others

obsessive-compulsive disorder

an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)

post-traumatic stress disorder

an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience

agoraphobia

fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable when panic strikes

post-traumatic growth

the phenomenon that challenging crises often lead people to later report an increased appreciation for life, more meaningful relationships, increased personal strength, changed priorities, and a richer spiritual life

anterior cingulate cortex

the area of the brain in which people with OCD show hyperactive brain activity

dissociative disorders

disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts and feelings

dissociative identity disorder

a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities; also called "multiple personality disorder"

mood disorders

psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes, including major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder

major depressive disorder

a mood disorder in which the person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

mania

a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive ,wildly optimistic state

bipolar disorder

a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania

dysthymic disorder

a condition between temporary blue moods and major depression - a poor mood that fills most of the day, nearly every day, for two years or more

norepinephrine, serotonin

the two neurotransmitters that depressed patients show low levels of

omega-3 fatty acid

another substance that people with depression have been observed to have lower levels of; found in fish, walnuts, etc

left frontal lobe

the area of the brain that is less active in depressed people

stable, global, internal

the terms in which depressed people tend to explain bad events

schizophrenia

a group of severe disorders characterized y disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perception, and inappropriate emotions and actions

delusions

false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders

selective attention

many psychologists attribute the disorganized thinking of schizophrenia to a breakdown in the capacity for this

flat affect

a zombielike state of apparent apathy

paranoid

subtype of schizophrenia characterized by preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, often with themes of persecution or grandiosity

positive symptoms

in schizophrenia, the presence of inappropriate behaviors

disorganized

subtype of schizophrenia characterized by disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion

catatonic

subtype of schizophrenia characterized by immobility (or excess, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, and/or parrotlike repeating of another's speech or movements

undifferentiated

subtype of schizophrenia characterized by many and varied symptoms

residual

subtype of schizophrenia characterized by withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared

negative symptoms

in schizophrenia, the absence of appropriate behaviors

behavioral medicine

an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease

health psychology

a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine

stress

the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging

stress reaction

physical and emotional responses to stress

Cannon

the physiologist who confirmed that the stress response is part of a unified mind-body system

epinephrine, norepinephrine

the stress hormones whose release is triggered by stress

fight or flight

our adaptive response to stress, including sympathetic nervous system arousal, increased heart rate and respiration, dulled pain, and sugar and fat released from body stores

glucocorticoids

stress hormones such as cortisol that are secreted by the outer part of the adrenal gland as part of the stress response

Selye

the psychologist who discovered the general adaptation syndrome

general adaptation syndrome

Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three stages - alarm, resistance, exhaustion

alarm

stage one of the general adaptation syndrome; the sudden activation of the sympathetic nervous system

resistance

stage two of the general adaptation syndrome; temperature, blood pressure and respiration remain high, and there is a sudden outpouring of hormones

exhaustion

stage three of the general adaptation syndrome; occurs when stress deplete body's reserves

telomeres

short pieces of DNA at the ends of chromosomes that are abnormally short in stressed people

coronary heart disease

the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries

Type A

Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people

Type B

Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people

plaque

scarlike masses formed by cholesterol deposits on artery walls

atherosclerosis

hardening of the arteries

psychophysiological illness

literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches

hypochondriasis

misinterpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease

lymphocytes

the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes from the bone marrow, which release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes that form in the thymus and attack cancer cells, viruses and foreign substances

macrophage

another agent of the immune system that identifies, pursues and ingests harmful invaders

placebo

a treatment with no biochemical effect

coping

alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive or behavioral methods

problem-focused coping

attempting to alleviate stress directly - by changing the stressor or the way we interact with the stressor

emotion-focused coping

attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction

aerobic exercise

sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety

biofeedback

a system for electronically recording, amplifying and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension

spontaneous remission

the natural disappearance of many diseases

complementary and alternative medicine

unproven health care treatments not taught widely in medical schools, not used in hospitals, and not usually reimbursed by insurance companies

relaxation response

Benson's term for the ability of experienced meditators to decrease their blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen consumption and raise their fingertip temperature

faith factor

the phenomenon that religion and health are correlated

psychotherapy

an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties

biomedical therapy

prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system

eclectic approach

an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy

psychotherapy integration

an approach to therapy that attempts to combine methods into a single, coherent system

resistance

in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material

interpretation

in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight

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