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Moral therapy

The approach, first begun by Pussin and Pinel, of attempting to bring about recovery for the mentally ill by eliminating harsh treatment and instituting compassionate care.

Deinstitutionalization

A policy, begun in the Unites States in the latter half of the twentieth century, moving mentally ill individuals out of large hospitals and into community-based mental health programs.

Placebo effects

A helpful result of psychotherapy that occurs because the patient hopes and believes in the treatment and that the improvement will occur

Eclectic therapy

A type of therapy that involves utilizing aspects of any available therapeutic methodology in order to best treat the psychological disorder at hand

Modeling

One of the strategies involved in behavior therapy where the client observes the real-life adaptive behavior of others and attempts to imitate it

Psychoanalysis

The psychotherapy approach first begun by Sigmund Freud where the cause of psychological disorder is believed to be deep-seated, repressed, unresolved conflicts

Insight

The objective of psychoanalysis as devised by Freud; the patient comes to understand the connection between the psychological disorder and repressed childhood experiences

Transference relationship

One component of psychoanalysis as developed by Sigmund Freud; the patient comes to regard the therapist as representing a key individual from an earlier difficult time and manifests this conceptualization during therapy session

Behavior therapy

One approach to psychotherapy where the emphasis is on what the client has learned from experience either through classical or operant conditioning

Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)

An approach to psychological treatment developed by Albert Ellis where the patient is challenged to evaluate the truth and rationality of beliefs underlying behaviors

Cognitive therapy

A type of psychotherapy developed by Aaron Beck where clients are encouraged to evaluate the truth of cognitive distortions underlying ineffective emotional reactions

Systematic Desensitization

A behavioral approach to psychotherapy most specifically geared towards alleviating phobias and other fear-based disorders; involves gradually learning to replace response of fear with a response of calmness and relaxation

free association

A fundamental technique that is part of traditional psychoanalysis; the patient is completely free to say whatever come to mind whether or not apparently meaningful

Psychotherapy

A form of treatment for psychological disorders constructed around a supportive relationship between client and therapist and involving extensive verbal exchange

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)

A type of therapy built upon the basic behavioral approach but adding an awareness of one's thoughts and interpretations as important to behavior and psychological functioning

Nonspecific factors

Qualities that seem to contribute to a positive psychotherapeutic experience but do not appear to be exclusive to one approach to psychotherapy or another

Family therapy

Treatment for psychological disorder involving approach the entire family unit and its functioning as the presenting psychological problem

Tardive dyskinesia

The most serious side effect from taking antipsychotic drugs; potentially disabling damage to the nervous system particularly that function directing motor activity

Prefrontal lobotomy

a psychological surgical procedure (now no longer used) to control violent behavior; neural connections between the frontal lobes and other brain centers are severed

Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

A class of psychotropic drugs used to treat depression and other disorders by specifically increasing the availability of serotonin through limiting how much is reabsorbed

Psychotropic drugs

Psychiatric drugs developed to treat psychological disorders by means of chemical and biological intervention

Tricyclics

One of the major classes of antidepressants, which are generally effective because they increase the availability of neurotransmitters by interfering with their reuptake

Antidepressants

A class of antipsychotic drugs developed to treat depression and other psychological disorders

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors

One of the major classes of antidepressants, which increase the availability of neurotransmitters related to emotional states by limiting the action of an enzyme that normally breaks down these neurotransmitters in the synapse

Antipsychotics

Drugs used in the treatment of severe psychological disorders such as schizophrenia

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

A controversial biomedical therapy for severe cases of depression where there is no real response to other forms of treatment; involves an electrical shock delivered to the head of a patient- the shock is of sufficient strength to induce convulsions

Psychosurgery

A rarely used procedure involving surgical alternations to the brain in an effort to control dangerously psychologically disturbed behavior

Antianxiety drugs

A class of psychotropic drugs developed to treat various anxiety disorders

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