A&P Exam 4-Digestion

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Peristalsis

Wavelike smooth muscle contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary tube.

Absorption

Process by which the products of digestion pass through the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract into the blood or lymph.

Digestion

Chemical or mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs to substances that can be absorbed.

Hydrolysis

Enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule.

True

Food is contained in the gastrointestinal tract from the time of ingestion until it is completely digested and the waste prepared for elimination.

False

Laparoscopy is the examination of the pericardial cavity using an endoscope.

True

As food passes through the digestive tract, it becomes less complex and the nutrients are more readily available to the body.

True

Some of the microbes that often invade other organs of the body are rarely found in the stomach. The reason for this is the presence of HCl.

True

Kupffer cells are found in the liver and are responsible for removing bacteria and worn-out cells.

False

The pharyngeal-esophageal phase of swallowing is involuntary and is controlled by the swallowing center in the thalamus and lower pons.

False

The cell type of the wall of the large intestine, excluding anal cells, is very different from that of the small intestine.

False

Pepsinogen is the precursor to the gastric enzyme for protein digestion and is secreted by the parietal cells.

True

The main chemical activity of the stomach is to begin the digestion of proteins.

False

Chemical digestion of lipids is initiated in the mouth.

False

The function of the enzyme salivary amylase is to begin digesting proteins.

True

The peritoneum is the most extensive serous membrane in the body.

True

Peyerʹs patches are found in the submucosa of the distal end of the small intestine.

True

The myenteric nerve plexus provides the major nerve supply to the GI tract wall and controls GI motility.

True

The first teeth to appear are the deciduous teeth.

False

Dentin anchors the tooth in place.

True

The digestive function of the liver is to produce bile.

True

The pancreas has both an endocrine and an exocrine function.

True

Another term for swallowing is deglutition.

True

The intrinsic ability of visceral smooth muscle to exhibit the stress-relaxation response is termed plasticity.

False

The stomachʹs contractile rhythm is set by pacemaker cells found in the spinal cord.

True

The major stimulus for production of intestinal fluid is distention or irritation of the intestinal mucosa by hypertonic or acidic chyme.

True

Most nutrients are absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villi by active transport.

True

Ionic iron is actively transported into the mucosal cells, where it binds to the protein ferritin, a phenomenon called the mucosal iron barrier.

False

Cystic fibrosis may significantly impair the activity of the liver.

False

The layer of muscle in the intestine directly in contact with the serosa is the circular layer.

True

Mumps is an inflammation of the parotid glands caused by myxovirus.

False

The mucosa is found only in the jejunum because this is the only part of the small intestine in need of mucus.

True

Fats significantly delay the emptying of the stomach.

False

The soft palate rises reflexively to open the nasopharynx when we swallow food.

in the walls of the tract organs

The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.

collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ________.

digestion

The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________.

chemical digestion

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.

mesenteries

The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.

passageway between the oral cavity and the pharynx

The structure known as the fauces is the ________.

contains the lamina propria

The epithelial membrane called the mucosa ________.

lamina propria

The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.

mucosa

The plicae circulares and intestinal villi are found in which of the four layers of the alimentary tube wall?

intestinal crypts

The structures that produce new cells for the mucosa of the small intestine are the ________.

plicae circulares and intestinal villi

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?

There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.

Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.

There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.

Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?

contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins

Which of the following is not true of saliva?

serous cells and mucous cells

The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?

electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA

The solutes contained in saliva include ________.

initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins

In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.

stomach

Chyme is created in the ________.

parietal cells

Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?

enteroendocrine cells

Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?

before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought

There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________.

waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

Peristaltic waves are ________.

B) protein and peptide fragments

Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of ________.

chief cells of the stomach

Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.

amylase

You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?

hepatopancreatic ampulla

The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the ________.

hydrolysis

The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called ________.

lipase

Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?

hydrochloric acid

Parietal cells of the stomach produce ________.

produce digestive enzymes

Hepatocytes do not ________.

enterogastric

Which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion?

B12

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?

are found in the basal regions of the gastric glands

Chief cells ________.

catabolism

Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________.

liver

The ________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.

serosa

If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the ________.

ileum

The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the ________.

canine tooth

The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3. What does the 1 stand for?

lipids

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?

Calicum

________ is locally regulated in the blood by the active form of vitamin D, which acts as a cofactor.

round ligament

Important peritoneal folds do not include the ________.

loose connective tissue

The lamina propria is composed of ________.

Carbohydrates

________ is/are not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion.

cystic duct

Pancreatic amylase does not get to the small intestine via the ________.

produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion

The function of the goblet cells is to ________.

2 to 3 liters of gastric juice per day

Under normal conditions, the gastric mucosa pours out as much as ________.

the vagus nerve and enteric plexus

Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.

fungiform and circumvallate

Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds?

parietal cells

Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?

trypsin

Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?

tongue

Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body?

bile

A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.

submucosa

The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the ________.

is longer than the small intestine

Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ________.

a thin periodontal ligament that holds the tooth in place

Tooth structure includes ________.

the pharyngeal-esophageal phase, an involuntary process

The propulsion of food down the gastrointestinal tract includes ________.

Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.

Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.

secrete enzymes that kill bacteria

Paneth cells ________.

Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.

Select the correct statement about digestive processes.

cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction

Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________.

If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated.

Select the correct statement about absorption.

Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum.

Select the correct statement about electrolyte absorption.

the pancreas

You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the following glands would be active in helping you to digest this food?

Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.

The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?

endoderm

The mucosa of the developing alimentary tube comes from ________.

alkalosis

A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the babyʹs loss of gastric juice, his blood probably indicates ________.

secretin

Hormones that inhibit gastric secretion include ________.

inferior vena cava

Which of these is not part of the splanchnic circulation?

nitric oxide

Which of these is not a component of saliva?

A

There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our Ig ________ antibody-mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing problems.

ileum

The longest portion of the small intestine is the ________.

amylase

________ is the principal enzyme for breaking down carbohydrates.

parietal

________ cells of the stomach secrete HCl.

bilirubin

The chief bile pigment is ________.

Emesis

________ is another word for vomiting.

a branch of the hepatic artery, a branch of the hepatic portal vein, and a bile duct.

The portal triad contains ________.

Kupffer

________ cells are found in the sinusoids of the liver and they remove debris from the blood as it flows past.

Visceral

________ peritoneum covers the external surfaces of most digestive organs.

periodontal

The ________ ligament anchors a tooth in the alveolus of the jaw.

cephalic (reflex)

The ________ phase of gastric secretions occurs before food enters the stomach.

umbilical vein

The round ligament is a remnant of the fetal ________.

Premolars have a broad crown with rounded cusps but have only one root. Molars also have broad
crowns with rounded cusps but are larger than premolars. Molars have at least two roots.

Compare and contrast the structure and function of a premolar and a molar.

Chylomicrons are tiny fatty droplets composed of triglycerides, small amounts of phospholipids,
cholesterol, free fatty acids, and some protein.

What are chylomicrons?

The acidic gastric juices get regurgitated into the esophagus. This may happen when someone has
eaten or drunk too much, or it can be caused by extreme obesity or the discomfort of pregnancy. It is
sometimes due to obstructions or structural faults in the esophagus as well.

What is heartburn and what causes it?

Mechanical food processes are very important in the mouth (mastication) and stomach (contractions
causing mixing of food into chyme). The esophagus and pharynx are primarily food conduits. Protein
digestion begins in the stomach. Fat digestion begins in the small intestine.

Name two regions of the digestive tract where mechanical food breakdown processes are very important. Name two organs that are primarily food conduits. Name the organ where protein digestion is begun. Name the organ where fat digestion begins.

Watery stools are called diarrhea. Constipation is a condition in which too much water has been
absorbed and the stool becomes hard and difficult to pass. Any condition, such as irritation of the colon by bacteria that rushes food residue through the large intestine before that organ has had sufficient time to absorb the remaining water, is known as diarrhea. Constipation may ensue from the lack of fiber in the diet, improper bowel habits, laxative abuse, or anything that decreases motility.

Define constipation and diarrhea. Note possible causes of each.

The bread will begin to taste sweet as some of the starch is broken down into sugar due to the
chemical digestion of carbohydrates by salivary amylase.

Assume you have been chewing a piece of bread for 5 or 6 minutes. How would you expect its taste to change during this time? Why?

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