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Terms and people from chapter 11 of the American Pageant

Thomas Jefferson

1743-1826. Third President of United States. Main author of the Declaration of Independence. Promoted ideals of republicanism in the United States.

Revolution of 1800

Jefferson's view of his election to presidency. Jefferson claimed that the election of 1800 represented a return to what he considered the original spirit of the Revolution. Jefferson's goals for his revolution were to restore the republican experiment, check the growth of government power, and to halt the decay of virtue that had set in under Federalist rule.

Patronage

(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support

Judiciary Act of 1801

One of the last important laws passed by the expiring Federalist Congress. It created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. This was Adams's last attempt to keep Federalists power in the new Republican Congress. His goal was for federalists to dominate the judicial branch of government.

John Marshall

American jurist and politician who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped establish the practice of judicial review.

judical review

the right of the Supreme Court to determine if a law violates the Constitution

Marbury v. Madison

(1803) Marbury was a midnight appointee of the Adams administration and sued Madison for commission. Chief Justice Marshall said the law that gave the courts the power to rule over this issue was unconstitutional. established judicial review

Samuel Chase

supreme court justice of whom the Democratic-Republican Congress tried to remove in retaliation of the John Marshall's decision regarding Marbury; was not removed due to a lack of votes in the Senate.

Barbary States

North African nations; America paid a yearly tribute (bribe) to their rulers to protect American ships.

Tripolitan War

Conflict in 1801 when the pasha of Tripoli cut down the flagstaff of the American consulate, lasting four years, after which a treaty was reached for the sum of $60,000 to ransom captured Americans.

Robert R. Livingston

along with James Monroe, negotiated in Paris for the Louisiana land area; signed a treaty on April 30, 1803 ceding Louisiana to the United States for $15 million

Toussaint L'Ouverture

Led the Haitian revolt against France, therefore causing Napoleon to give up his dream of an empire in the Americas. Napoleon then decided to sell the Louisiana Territory.

Louisiana Purchase

A territory in the west central United States purchased from France for $15 million in 1803; extended from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains, and the gulf of Mexico to Canada.

Meriwether Lewis

United States explorer and soldier who lead led an expedition from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River (1774-1809)

William Clark

co leader for the expedition West. Appointed by Meriwether Lewis. He was a skilled map maker.

Corps of Discovery

Official name of the Lewis and Clark Expedition members

Aaron Burr

United States politician who served as Vice President under Jefferson for his first term. He kiled Alexander Hamilton in a duel and later tried to form a Confederace in the western U.S. but failed.

James Wilkinson

The corrupt military governor of Louisiana Territory; made an allegiance with Burr to separate the western part of the United States from the East and expand their new confederacy with invasions of Spanish-controlled Mexico and Florida.

Orders in Council

Britain blockaded the ports of France and its allies, thereby preventing neutral nations from trading with these nations

Impressment

British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service.

Chesapeake affair

British warship fired on US warship off Virginia's coast, killing three Americans; resulted in high anti-British sentiment (1807).

Embargo Act

signed by thomas jefferson in 1807 - stop export of all american goods and american ships from sailing for foreign ports.

Non-Intercourse Act

it allowed Americans to carry or trade with all nations except for Britian and France.

James Madison

Strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the Constitution, leads nation through War of 1812.

Macon's Bill No. 2

1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.

war hawks

Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.

Tecumseh

A famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement.

the Prophet

A shawnee indian leader whose brother was Tecumseh.

William Henry Harrison

Govenor of the Indiana territory, that fought against Tecumseh and the Prophet in the battle of Tippecanoe.

Battle of Tippecanoe

Battle in the Indiana Territory in 1811 between US and Native American forces that led to the defeat of the Native Americans.

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