microbiology chapter 9

43 terms by hilarysantos 

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Among the microorganisms, various
genomes can include
chromosomes.
plasmids.
mitochondrial DNA.
chloroplast DNA.
All of the choices are correct.

All of the choices are correct

Eukaryotic chromosomes differ from
prokaryotic chromosomes because only eukaryotes have
histone proteins.
chromosomes in a nucleus.
several to many chromosomes.
elongated, not circular, chromosomes.
All of the choices are correct.

All of the choices are correct.

The DNA of microorganisms is made up of subunits called
histones.
amino acids.
nucleotides.
mRNA.
polymerases.

nucleotides

Which is incorrect about purines?

only found in DNA, not in RNA
are nitrogenous bases
always paired with a specific pyrimidine
include adenine and guanine
found within nucleotides

only found in DNA, not in RNA

5. The antiparallel arrangement within DNA molecules refers to
each base bonding at the 1' position of the sugar.
a purine always bonding to a pyrimidine.
one helix strand that runs from the 5' to 3' direction and the other strand runs from the 3' to 5' direction.
an original parent DNA strand and one newly synthesized DNA strand comprising a new DNA molecule.
None of the choices are correct.

one helix strand that runs from the 5' to 3' direction and the other strand runs from the 3' to 5' direction.

6. The duplication of a cell's DNA is called
mitosis.
replication.
transcription.
translation.
mutation.

replication

7. The enzymes that help pack DNA
into the cell by coiling the DNA into a tight bundle are
DNA ligases.
DNA polymerases.
DNA helicases.
DNA gyrases.
primases.

DNA gyrases

8. The enzymes that can proofread replicating DNA, detect incorrect bases, excise them, and correctly replace them are
DNA ligases.
DNA polymerases.
DNA helicases.
DNA gyrases.
primases.

DNA polymerases

9. All of the following pertain to
nitrogenous bases except
they form pairs by hydrogen bonding.
guanine pairs with uracil.
adenine pairs with thymine.
cytosine and thymine are pyrimidines.
allows variation from one nucleotide to another which creates the encoded information

guanine pairs with uracil.

10. Groups of three consecutive
bases along the DNA of a gene have the code for one
protein.
nucleotide.
amino acid.
purine.
None of the choices are correct.

amino acid

11. The RNA molecules that carry
amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis are called
ribosomal RNA.
messenger RNA.
transfer RNA.
primer RNA.
ribozymes.

transfer RNA.

12. This molecule is transcribed from the DNA template strand and later translated.
ribosomal RNA
messenger RNA
transfer RNA
primer RNA
protein

messenger RNA

13. RNA molecules differ from DNA
molecules because only RNA
has ribose.
has uracil.
is typically one strand of nucleotides.
does not have thymine.
All of the choices are correct.

All of the choices are correct

14. All of the following pertain to
transcription except it
occurs on a ribosome in the cytoplasm.
occurs before translation.
requires RNA polymerase.
requires a template DNA strand.
is part of the process of protein synthesis.

occurs on a ribosome in the cytoplasm

15. If a codon for alanine is GCA, then
the anticodon is
GCA.
CGT.
ACG.
CGU.
UGC.

CGU

16. The nontranscribed region of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds to initiate transcription is called the
promoter.
operator.
operon.
exon.
intron.

promoter

17. A sequence of bases on a gene that does not code for protein is called a/an
promoter.
operator.
operon.
exon.
intron.

intron

18. Which is incorrect about inducible operons?
they have genes turned off by a buildup of end product
they are often for catabolic pathways
they are normally turned off
they are turned on by the substrate of the enzyme
they include the lac operon

they have genes turned off by a buildup of end product

19. The operon segment composed of the gene that codes for a protein repressor is called the
operator.
structural locus.
regulator.
promoter.
None of the choices are correct.

regulator

20. Synthesis of an inducible enzyme requires
repressor alone bound to operator.
substrate bound to repressor.
substrate bound to promoter.
corepressor and repressor binding to the operator.
None of the choices are correct.

substrate bound to repressor

21. Bacterial conjugation involves
bacteriophage carrying donor DNA to the recipient cell.
a donor cell with a plasmid and a pilus.
naked DNA fragments from a lysed donor cell are taken up by a recipient cell.
new progeny cells with genes from two parent bacterial cells.
None of the choices are correc

a donor cell with a plasmid and a pilus.

22. Which is incorrect about pyrimidines?
are only found in DNA, not in RNA
they are always paired with a specific purine
they include cytosine and thymine
they are found within nucleotides
they are nitrogenous bases they

are only found in DNA, not in RNA

23. Which type of mutation leads to a frameshift mutation?
missense
deletion
nonsense
base substitution
All of the choices are correct.

deletion

24. Individuals with xeroderma pigmentosa lack a functioning
photolyase.
DNA polymerase III.
DNA ligase.
ribozyme.
RNA polymerase.

photolyase.

25. All of the following are products of transcription except
rRNA.
mRNA.
DNA.
tRNA.
All of the choices are products of transcription

DNA

26. If the DNA sequence is ATTCCGGA, the mRNA transcript would be
TAAGGCCT.
UAAGGCCU.
ATTCCGGA.
GUUAATTG.
CAAGGUTA.

UAAGGCCU

27. All of the following are true about mutations except
they are always detrimental to the organism they occur in.
they occur in the DNA.
if not repaired, they become part of the gene pool.
they may lead to an incorrect protein being made.
they can create variants in a population.

they are always detrimental to the organism they occur in.

28. Individuals with xeroderma pigmentosa cannot repair mutations caused by
nitrous acid.
acridine dyes.
ultraviolet light.
ethidium bromide.
bisulfite.

ultraviolet light

29. Which of the following is not true about transposons?
They contain DNA that codes for their own removal and insertion.
They can move from a chromosome to another chromosome.
They can move from a chromosome to a plasmid.
They are rare among prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
They can replicate themselves before jumping to the next location

They are rare among prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

30. A missense mutation can cause
no significant alteration in protein functions.
True
False

true

:
31. Transduction utilizes bacteriophages to carry DNA from a donor cell to a recipient cell.
True
False

True

32. The smallest unit of heredity is a
chromosome.
True
False

False

33. The on/off switch for transcription
in the lactose operon is called the regulator.
True
False

False

34. Lactose is a corepressor in the lac operon.
True
False

False

35. Induced mutations result from errors in DNA replication.
True
False

False

36. DNA photolyase, in the presence
of visible light, can repair DNA damage due to ultraviolet radiation.
True
False

True

37. The _____ is all of the genetic
material of a cell.

genome

38. Each nucleotide is composed of one phosphate, one 5-carbon _____, and one _____ base.

sugar,nitrogenous

Base pairs in DNA are held together by _____ bonds

hydrogen

:
40. During replication, each parent DNA strand serves as a _____ for synthesis of new DNA strands

template

Each _____ is a specific segment of the DNA with the code for production of one functional product.

gene

Gene regulation can involve a protein repressor that blocks _____ from initiating transcription

RNA polymerase

:
43. A permanent, inheritable change in the genetic information is called a _____.

mutation

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