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degenerative myelopathy

condition where there is degeneration of axons and their myelin sheaths


with degenerative myelopathy, is it more common to have UMN or LMN signs in the pelvic limbs?


are dogs with degenerative myelopathy usually able to still detect pain in their pelvic limbs?


what is the only way to make a definitive diagnosis of degenerative myelopathy?


is there a treatment for degenerative myelopathy?

L7, S1

cauda equina syndrome occurs due to malarticulation/malformation between what 2 vertebrae?


is the femoral nerve affected by cauda equina syndrome?

sciatic, pudendal

what 2 nerves have LMN signs with cauda equina syndrome?

lumbosacral pain

what is the earliest sign of cauda equina syndrome?

tail jack

you can use the lordosis test to try and elicit a pain response to test for pain due to cauda equina syndrome, but what is another test that you can do that won't elicit a pain response if there might also be coxofemoral pain present?

transitional vertebra

dogs with what vertebral condition are eight times more likely to develop cauda equina syndrome?

lumbosacral dorsal laminectomy

cage rest and NSAIDs usually show poor results when treating cauda equina syndrome, but what procedure shows the best results?


by 7-8 years of age, most dogs have had their nucleus pulposus replaced with what?

hyaline cartilage

in chondrodystrophic breeds, what is the nucleus pulposus replaced with?

hansen type 1

type of disc displacement where there is an explosive extrusion of the nucleus pulposus into the spinal canal

hansen type 2

type of disc displacement where there are small tears in the annulus fibrosis and there is slow protrusion of the nucleus pulposus


what dog breed is greatly predisposed to thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease?


in what region of vertebrae do disc protrusions never occur?


in what region of vertebrae do disc protrusions mostly occur?


will you see UMN or LMN signs in the pelvic limbs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease?

cage rest

for animals with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease that don't have complete paralysis of the pelvic limbs, what is the best treatment for them?

dorsolateral hemilaminectomy

for dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease that have complete paralysis of the pelvic limbs, what is the treatment option with the best chance of a successful outcome?


infection of the cartilaginous endplates with secondary involvement of the intervertebral disc

T4-T6, C6-C7, L7-S1

3 most common sites of diskospondylitis

systemic signs

spinal cord signs concurrently with what else should raise a high level of suspicion for diskospondylitis?

analgesics, antibiotics

2 types of drugs that animals with diskospondylitis should be put on


what is the most common location of spinal tumors in dogs?


what is the most common primary spinal cord tumor in dogs?

thoracolumbar area

where is the most common location of meningiomas?

extradural lymphosarcoma

what is the most common spinal neoplasia in cats?

thoracolumbar, sacroiliac

what 2 areas are most affected by vertebral fractures and luxations?


what is a common locations for luxation in the cat that is due to "tail tugs"?


failure of the left and right centers of ossification of a vertebra to fuse which is usually asymptomatic

block vertebrae

incomplete segmentation of two or more adjacent vertebrae which may or may not have neurological signs

spondylosis deformans

vertebral osteophytes form spurs or complete boney bridges at intervertebral spaces, but rarely cause clinical signs

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