Psych Chapter 6 Test

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Form of classical conditioning in which a food comes to be avoided

taste aversion

Act of responding in the same way to stimuli that seem similar

generalization

Method of overcoming fears by pairing a pleasing stimulus with a feared one

counterconditioning

Form of learning based on the consequences of actions

operant

When a conditional response stops occurring

extinction

Stimulus that causes an automatic response

unconditioned stimulus

Stimulus that encourages a behavior by meeting an organism's basic biological needs

primary reinforcer

Revival of an extinguished response

spontaneous recovery

Something that produces a response is called a _____

stimulus

A response that is automatic, or not learned is called a(n) _____

unconditional response

The method of _____ involves exposing a person to a harmless stimulus until he or she is no longer afraid of it

flooding

A stimulus that becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus to produce a conditioned response is a(n) _____

conditioned stimulus

_____ is the method of teaching complex behaviors by breaking them down into manageable parts

Shaping

The form of learning that keeps knowledge hidden until it is needed is called _____

latent

A(n) _____ reinforcer is learned and becomes effective by being paired with such reinforcers as food and shelter

secondary

A(n) _____ reinforcer increases the frequency of the behavior it follows when it is applied

positive

The type of learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates others is called _____

observational learning

Ivan Pavlov's experiments with dogs yielded information about

classical conditioning

A conditional response occurs

as a result of pairing an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus

A conditioned response may be extinguished when

the conditioned stimulus is no longer followed by an unconditioned stimulus

Classical conditioning can be applied to help overcome fears using the method of

all of the above (flooding, systematic desensitization, counterconditioning)

Through operant conditioning, people learn to control

voluntary responses

The process by which a stimulus increases the changes of a preceding behavior occurring again is called

reinforcement

The process of learning to ride a bicycle is an example of

shaping

People who watch a lot of violence on television are more likely to be violent in part because of

observational learning

An effective method for dealing with a misbehaving elementary-school student is

positive reinforcement

In John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner's experiment, "Little Albert" began to fear all objects that were white and furry because of

generalization

Most psychologists suggest that punishment is not the best way to deal with a problem because it

all of the above

Spontaneous recovery can occur

when the conditioned stimulus starts again

Primary and secondary reinforcers are important in

operant conditioning

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