_________ _______ ______ (ANS) is the division of the peripheral nervous system that innervates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & glands
autonomic nervous system
what is the name for tissues associated with the viscera (internal organs) of the body?
the neurons of the ANS are referred to as _________ _____ _______
autonomic motor neurons
the ____ ______ of most autonomic motor neurons are found in the _______ ____ ____ of the spinal cord (thoriacic, upper lumbar or sacral regions)
cell bodies, lateral gray horn
where do other autonomic motor neurons have their cell bodies?
the brain stem
autonomic motor neurons regulate viseral activities by either __________ (exciting) or __________ (inhibiting) ongoing activities in their effectors
3 examples of autonomic responses include adjustment of the rate & force of the _________, ________ or ____________ of the bronchial tubes of the lungs & secretion of _________ _______
heartbeat, dialation, constriction, secretion
the action of the ANS is ___________ b/c its motor responses are not normally under concious control
what are the names of the 2 branches of the ANS?
parasympathetic nervous system & sympathetic nervous system
organs recieve nerves from both branches of the ANS, an arrangement known as ____ ___________
one branch of the ANS __________ the organ to increase its activity (excitation) & other branch decreases the organ's activity (__________)
_______________ _______ ______ is located in the sacral region & brain stem
parasympathetic nervous system
___________ _______ ______ is located in the thoracic & upper lumbar regions
sympathetic nervous system
parasympathetic nervous system enhances ____ & ______ activities
rest & digest
the rest & digest activities conserve & restore the body energy during times of ____ & ________
rest & recovery
sympathetic nervous system promotes _____ or ______ response
fight or flight
the fight or flight response prepares the body for _________ __________
an _________ _____ ________ consist of 2 automatic motor neurons in series
autonomic motor pathway
what are the 2 autonomic motor neurons?
preganglionic neuron & postganglionic neuron
the first neuron, cell body is in the brain stem or S.C. & extends to an autonomic ganglion, then synapses w/ postganglionic neuron
the second neuron, cell body is in an autonomic ganglion &axon extends from ganglion to visceral effector (smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, gland)
a cluster of cell bodies of sympathetic or parasympathetic neurons in the PNS is an
________ _______ are located close to or actually w/ in the walls of the visceral effector
what are the names of the 4 terminal ganglion in the head?
ciliary ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, submandibular ganglion, otic ganglion
___________ _____ is a chain of ganglia located on either side of the spinal cord
____________ (__________) _______ are individual ganglia that are not associated w/ sympathetic trunk
prevertebral (collateral) ganglia
__________ _____ are modified sympathetic postganglionic neurons that lack dendrites and axons
these cells release hormones into the blood rather than extending to another organ
chromaffin cells release a mixture of catecholamin hormones- 80% ___________, 20% ______________, & trance amount of ________
epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine
parasympathetic nervous system dominates the sympathetic nervous system during periods of ____ & ______
rest & digest
what 4 responses are caused from activation of the parasympathetic nervous system?
contraction of circular smooth muscle, relaxation of radial smooth muscle; relaxation of cardiac muscle; reduced breathing rate & increased contraction of smooth muscle in walls of bronchi & bronchioles of lungs; increased digestive system activity
sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for _________ __________
activation of the sympathetic nervous sytem causes the "_____-__-______ ________"
what 6 responses are caused from the activation of the sympathetic nervous system?
relaxation of circular smooth muscle & contraction of radial smooth muscle; contraction of cardiac muscle; relaxation of smooth muscle of bronchi & bronchioles of the lungs; relaxation of smooth muscle in walls of blood vessels; contraction of smooth muscle in wall of blood vessels; relaxation of smooth muscle in wall of urinary bladder