_________ _______ ______ (ANS) is the division of the peripheral nervous system that innervates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & glands
autonomic nervous system
what is the name for tissues associated with the viscera (internal organs) of the body?
the ____ ______ of most autonomic motor neurons are found in the _______ ____ ____ of the spinal cord (thoriacic, upper lumbar or sacral regions)
cell bodies, lateral gray horn
autonomic motor neurons regulate viseral activities by either __________ (exciting) or __________ (inhibiting) ongoing activities in their effectors
3 examples of autonomic responses include adjustment of the rate & force of the _________, ________ or ____________ of the bronchial tubes of the lungs & secretion of _________ _______
heartbeat, dialation, constriction, secretion
the action of the ANS is ___________ b/c its motor responses are not normally under concious control
what are the names of the 2 branches of the ANS?
parasympathetic nervous system & sympathetic nervous system
organs recieve nerves from both branches of the ANS, an arrangement known as ____ ___________
one branch of the ANS __________ the organ to increase its activity (excitation) & other branch decreases the organ's activity (__________)
_______________ _______ ______ is located in the sacral region & brain stem
parasympathetic nervous system
___________ _______ ______ is located in the thoracic & upper lumbar regions
sympathetic nervous system
the rest & digest activities conserve & restore the body energy during times of ____ & ________
rest & recovery
the first neuron, cell body is in the brain stem or S.C. & extends to an autonomic ganglion, then synapses w/ postganglionic neuron
the second neuron, cell body is in an autonomic ganglion &axon extends from ganglion to visceral effector (smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, gland)
a cluster of cell bodies of sympathetic or parasympathetic neurons in the PNS is an
________ _______ are located close to or actually w/ in the walls of the visceral effector
what are the names of the 4 terminal ganglion in the head?
ciliary ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, submandibular ganglion, otic ganglion
____________ (__________) _______ are individual ganglia that are not associated w/ sympathetic trunk
prevertebral (collateral) ganglia
__________ _____ are modified sympathetic postganglionic neurons that lack dendrites and axons
chromaffin cells release a mixture of catecholamin hormones- 80% ___________, 20% ______________, & trance amount of ________
epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine
parasympathetic nervous system dominates the sympathetic nervous system during periods of ____ & ______
rest & digest
what 4 responses are caused from activation of the parasympathetic nervous system?
contraction of circular smooth muscle, relaxation of radial smooth muscle; relaxation of cardiac muscle; reduced breathing rate & increased contraction of smooth muscle in walls of bronchi & bronchioles of lungs; increased digestive system activity
activation of the sympathetic nervous sytem causes the "_____-__-______ ________"
what 6 responses are caused from the activation of the sympathetic nervous system?
relaxation of circular smooth muscle & contraction of radial smooth muscle; contraction of cardiac muscle; relaxation of smooth muscle of bronchi & bronchioles of the lungs; relaxation of smooth muscle in walls of blood vessels; contraction of smooth muscle in wall of blood vessels; relaxation of smooth muscle in wall of urinary bladder