Anatomy - Chapter 13 and 15

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Right

Which of the primary bronchi is larger in diameter?

Left

Which of the primary bronchi is more horizontal?

Right

Which of the primary bronchi is the most common site for lodging of a foreign object that has entered the respiratory passageways?

Nostrils

Air enters the nasal cavity of the respiratory system through the ____.

Nasal Septum

The nasal cavity is divided by the midline ____.

Cleanse, warm, humidify

The major functions of the nasal cavity are to ____, _____, and ____ the incoming air.

Sinuses

Mucous membrane-lined cavities called ____ are found in several bones surrounding the nasal cavity.

Sound

Sinuses make the skull less heavy and probably act as resonance chambers for ____.

Pharynx

The passageway common to the digestive and respiratory systems, the ____, is often referred to as the throat.

Larynx

The pharynx connects the nasal cavity with the ____ below.

Tonsils

Clusters of lymphatic tissue, ____, are part of the defensive system of the body.

Hyaline cartilage, pressure changes

Reinforcement of the trachea with ____ rings prevents its collapse during ___ changes that occur during breathing.

Anteriorly

The fact that the rings are incomplete posteriorly allows a food bolus to bulge ____ during its transport to the stomach.

Thyroid

The larynx or voice box is built from many cartilages, but the largest is the ____ cartilage.

Vocal folds, speak

Within the larynx are the ____, which vibrate with exhaled air and allow the individual to ____.

Bronchioles

Smallest conducting respiratory passageways

Palate

Separates the oral and nasal cavities

Phrenic nerve

Major nerve, stimulating the diaphragm

Esophagus

Food passageway posterior to the trachea

Epiglottis

Closes of the larynx during swallowing

Trachea

Windpipe

Alveoli

Actual site of gas exchanges

Parietal pleura

Pleural layer covering the thorax walls

Visceral pleura

Pleural layer covering the lungs

Glottis

Lumen of larynx

Conchae

Fleshy lobes in the nasal cavity which increase its surface area

Elastic connective

With the exception of the stroma of the lungs, which is ____ tissue, the lungs are mostly air spaces, of which the alveoli comprise the greatest part.

Gas exchange

The bulk of the alveolar walls are made up of squamous epithelial cells, which are well suited for their ____ function.

Surfactant, reduce surface tension

Much less numerous cuboidal cells produce a fluid that coats the air-exposed surface of the alveolus and contains a lipid-based molecule called ____ that functions to ____ of the alveolar fluid.

2

The left lung has ____ lobes.

3

The right lung has ____ lobes.

Intrapleural pressure

In healthy lungs, it is always lower than atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure

Pressure of air outside the body

Intrapulmonary pressure

As it decreases, air flows into the passageways of the lungs

Intrapulmonary pressure

As it increases over atmospheric pressure, air flows out of the lungs

Intrapleural pressure

If this pressure becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure, the lungs collapse

Intrapulmonary pressure

Rises well over atmospheric pressure during a forceful cough

Intrapulmonary pressure

Pressure inside the lungs

Intrapleural pressure

Pressure in the pleural cavity

Atmospheric pressure

Pressure out side of the body

Black trachea

When air cannot squeeze out of lungs

Pons center

Smooth out the basic rhythm of breathing set by the medulla

Inspiratory center

Respiratory control center in the medulla

Stretch receptors in the lungs

Respond to overinflation of the lungs

Chemoreceptors

Respond to decreased oxygen levels in the blood

Intercostal, Phrenic

Nerves that carry activating impulses to the muscles of inspiration

Apnea

Lack or cessation of breathing

Eupnea

Normal breathing in terms of rate and depth

Dyspnea

Labored breathing or "air hunger"

Hypoxia

Chronic oxygen deficiency

Emphysema

Condition characterized by fibrosis of the lungs and an increase in size of the alveolar chambers

Chronic Bronchitis

Condition characterized by increased mucus production, which clogs respiratory passageways and promotes coughing

Asthma

Respiratory passageways narrowed by bronchiolar spasms

Chronic Bronchitis, Emphysema

Together called COPD

Lung cancer

Incidence strongly associated with cigarette smoking; outlook is poor

Tuberculosis

Infection spread by airborne bacteria; a recent alarming increase in drug users and AIDs victims

Nitrogenous

The kidney is referred to as an excretory organ because it excretes ____ wastes.

Electrolyte, Water, Acid-base

The kidney is a major homeostatic organ because it maintains the ____, _____, and ____ balance of the blood.

Kidneys, ureters, peristalsis

Urine is continuously formed by the ____ and is routed down the ____ by the mechanism of ____.

Urinary bladder

Urine is stored in

Urethra

The urine is conducted to the body exterior by the ____.

8

In males, the urethra is about ____ inches in length.

1 1/2

In females, the urethra is about ____ inches in length.

Diuretic

Tells kidneys to release water / lose water weight

Nephrons

Responsible for forming urine / functional units of the kidneys

Filtration, reabsorption, secretion

What are the three processes occurring in nephrons?

Amino acids or glucose

What two things should you never have in your urine?

Retroperitoneal

Outside the abdominal cavity

Retroperitoneal

The kidney (location wise) is...

Renal capsule

Fibrous membrane, surrounding the kidney

Renal pelvis

Basinlike are of the kidney that is continuous with the ureter

Calycas

Cuplike extension of the pelvis that drains the apex of a pyramid

Renal column

Area of cortical tissue running through the medulla

Renal medulla

Inside the cortex of the kidney / containing the column and pyramid

Renal cortex

Area of the kidney that contains the greatest proportion of nephron structures

Medullary pyramid

Striped-appearing structures formed primarily of collecting ducts

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