The Black Death
- was a plague that struck Europe in the 14th century; significantly reduced Europe's population; affected social structure.
European scholars, writers, and teachers associated with the study of the humanities (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, languages, and moral philosophy), influential in the fifteenth century and later.
one of the first humanists, lived from 1304 to 1374, famous scholar/teacher/poet, believed that classical writings (greek and roman) should be studied and imitated
relating to or belonging to the Middle Ages
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
1483 - 1520; contemporary/rival of Michelangelo whom he respected highly; famous for his portraits, religious works (especially of the Virgin Mary), "The School of Athens", & fresco's in the Vatican Palace
(1475-1564) Italian Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet; he sculpted the Pieta and the David, and he painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel which took him four years to paint. The ceiling shows sweeping scenes from the Old Testament of the Bible.
Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poese and compression of space.
Italian Renaissance writer, described government in the way it actually worked (ruthless). He wrote The Prince (the end justifies the mean).
German theologian who led the Reformation, German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
The year Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther
John Calvin was responsible for founding Calvinism, which was reformed Catholicism. He writes about it in "Institutes of a Christian Religion" published in 1536. He believed God was all knowing and everyone was predestined for heaven or hell.
Scottish theologian and Calvinist who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)
The Treaty of Westphalia
Brought about the end of the Thirty Year War.
Portuguese explorer who first sailed around Africa's southern tip
the Spice Islands
Europeans' name for the Moluccas, islands rich in cloves and nutmeg
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada (1540-1596)
a settlement established by the Dutch near the mouth of Hudson River and the southern end of Manhattan Island
Benedict de Spinoza
philosopher from Amsterdam;excommunicated after rejecting tenets of Judaism;believed in pantheism, and rejected Descartes's ideas
the doctrine or belief that God is the universe and its phenomena (taken or conceived of as a whole) or the doctrine that regards the universe as a manifestation of God
Scottish philosopher whose skeptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses (1711-1776)
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
Economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics, designed modern Capitalism
law of supply and demand
A law which states that when supplies of goods and services become plentiful, prices tend to drop. When supplies become scarcer, prices tend to rise.
The Legislative Assembly
Name of the Second French Revolutionary Government. Formed after the National Assembly to concentrate more on law making.
in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages
established after the Reign of Terror / National Convention; a five man group as the executive branch of the country; unsuccessful and corrupt, only lasted for 4 years
The Peninsular War
Portugal had traded with Britain forever and didn't want to stop. Napoleon needed to go through Spain to get to them and when Spain says no he decides to take over
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
equal distribution of money, goods, and factors of production. "From each according to his ability, to each according to his need", militant.
The Communist Manifesto
written in 1848 by Karl Marx and Driedrich Engels to describe the advantages that socialism has over a capitalism economy. it also tried to prove that class separation in society is only hurting the society
marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
(philosophy) the philosophical theory that matter is the only reality
A piece of territory that is surrounded by another political unit of which it is not a part.
belonging to or befitting a supreme ruler
(1881) son of Alex II (assassinated), increased use of secret police, censorship, exiles to Siberia, Russian unification to suppress non-Russiansans
a political theory favoring unlimited authority by a single individual
traditional beliefs, especially in religion
mental keenness; sharpness of judgment; ability to judge quickly and well