|Frances Galton|| Maintained that personality and ability depend almost entirely on genetic|
inheritance(human traits are inherited)
|Charles Darwin||Theory of evolution, survival of the fittest-origin of the species|
|William Wundt|| introspection-psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience (rather than|
|John Watson||Founder of behaviorism- Did the study of generalization|
|Little Albert||Watson's study on the generalization of fear. Conditioning subject to be afraid|
|Alfred Adler|| Neo Freudian, believed that childhood social not sexual tensions are crucial for personality|
|Carl Jung|| People had conscious and unconscious awareness-two layers of unconscious archetypespersonal/|
|Gordon Allport|| Three levels of traits: 1. Cardinal trait-it is the dominant trait that characterizes your life;|
2.Central trait-one common to all people; 3. Secondary trait- it surfaces in some situations and not in others
|Albert Ellis|| Rational Emotive Therapy-focuses on altering client's patterns of irrational thinking to reduce|
maladaptive behaviour and emotions
|Abraham Maslow|| Hierarchy of needs-Needs at the lower level dominate an individual's motivation as long as|
they are unsatisfied. Once these needs are adequately met, the higher needs occupy the individual's
|Carl Rogers|| Humanistic psychology-the theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially|
their freedom and potential for personal growth.
|B.F. Skinner|| Operant conditioning-techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behaviour|
in order to observe the effects of subsequent behaviour. Also Skinner Box.
|Ivan Pavlov|| Classical conditioning-An unconditional stimulus naturally elicits a reflexive behaviour called|
an unconditional response. But with repeated pairings with a neutral stimulus, the neutral stimulus will elicit
the response. Dog Salivation etc.
|Noam Chomsky|| Disagreed with Skinner and said there an infinite number of sentences in a language. He|
said that humans have an inborn native ability to develop language.
|Jean Piaget|| Four-stage theory of cognitive development. 1. Sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete|
operational, 4. formal operational He said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive
growth-assimilation & accommodation
|Erik Erikson|| People evolve through 8 stages over the life span. Each stage marked by psychological crisis|
that involves confronting "who am I"
|Lawrence Kohlberg|| His theory states there are 3 levels of moral reasoning and each level can be divided|
into 2 stages. 1. Pre-conventional, 2. conventional, 3.post-conventional. His theory focuses on moral
reasoning rather than overt behaviour.
|Carol Gilligan|| She maintained that Kolbergs work was developed only observing boys and overlooked|
potential differences between the habitual moral judgments of men and women
|James Lange Theory|| It asserts that the perception of emotion is our awareness of our physiological|
response to emotion arousing stimuli. e.g. sight of coming car-pounding heart-fear
|Cannon-Bard Theory|| An emotion-arousing stimulus triggers cognitive body responses simultaneously.|
E.g. arousal and emotion are simultaneous
|Phineas Gage|| First person to have a frontal lobotomy. Gave psychology information on part of the brain|
that is involved with emotions reasoning etc.
|Hans Eysenck|| Personality is determined to a large extent by genes. He used the terms|
|S. Schacter|| To experience emotions 1. must be physically aroused 2. must cognitively label arousal (know|
the emotion before you experience it)
|Mary Cover Jones||Systemic desensitization|
|Benjamin Whorf||His hypothesis is that language determines the way we think|
|Robert Sternberg|| Triarchic theory of intelligence. 1. academic problem-solving intelligence 2. practical|
intelligence 3. creative intelligence
|Howard Gardner||Theory of multiple intelligences|
|Albert Bandura|| Observational Learning-it allows you to profit immediately from the mistakes and|
successes of others. His experiment had adult models punching BoBo dolls and then observed children
whom watched this exhibit many of the same behaviours.
|E.L. Thorndike|| Law of effect-(the relationship between behaviour and its consequences) the principle that|
behaviour followed by favourable consequences becomes more likely. Behaviour followed by less likely
consequences becomes less likely
|Alfred Binet|| general I.Q. tests. A Frenchman designed a test that would identify slow learners in need of|
remedial help. It was not that valuable in America as it was too culture bound.