____ plants/animals with certain qualities an then _____ them to make them more useful to humans.
Is made by connecting segments of DNA from different sources
contains genes from other species
A small ring of DNA found in a bacterial cell
The procedure for cleaving DNA from an organism into small segments and inserting the segments into another organisms
genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology.
Bacterial proteins that have the ability to cut both strands of the DNA molecule at a certain points.
general term for a carrier used to transfer a foreign DNA fragment into a host cell.
A type of selective breeding is crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms.
type of selective breeding that is the continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics. risk: a cross between 2 individuals will bring together 2 recessive alleles for a genetic defect.
an american botanist that developed the disease resistant potato that helped prevent diseases.
is the moving of genes from one organism to those of another ( faster & more reliable)
crossing an individual with an unknown genotype with one with a known genotype. ( used to determine the ____ of a dominant phenotype.
test cross; genotype
what does it mean if you get recessive offspring?
why do you always cross with a recessive?
because only known genotype
is when bacteria is used to ____ pollutants and produces cheese, paper products, detergent. also bacteria used to extract minerals from ores, and produce ____ like indigo and phenylalanine.
Industry; break down; chemicals
is when bacteria is used to produce insulin Hormone) & vaccines. also human diseases can be studied in other animals ( mice, worms, flies)
is when plants can be made resistant to ________ and can be made with more vitamins in them, and non-allergenic (peanuts)
Agriculture; insects frost & pesticide
the enzymes look for specific locations in the DNA sequence which most of sequences are ____
Most of the time _____ cut is made and this produces a sticky end that can readily combine with other cut pieces of DNA
are cells that have not become specialized and have the ability to developed into any cell type based on exposure to different growth factors (protein)
stem cells can be used to repair damaged cell or to produce ____ organs. also can be used to study how the process of cell _____ occurs (examines what genes are turned on and off). can be obtain from very young ___ or in some cases adult tissues ( found in bone brain etc.)
donator; specialization; embryos
can be done in a single genes (PCR) or whole organisms. their job is to produce genetically identical copies.
what step is the following in making recombinant plasmids: isolate the gene of interest
what step is the following in making recombinant plasmids: isolate bacterial plasmid (a small circular piece of DNA which is used as a vector)
what step is the following in making recombinant plasmids:cut both types of DNA with the SAME restriction enzyme. then you would get matching sticky end.
what step is the following in making recombinant plasmids: mix the two types of DNA together ( gene splicing ( joining))
what step is the following in making recombinant plasmids: add the enzyme ligase (linking) this permanently bonds the pieces.
what step is the following in making recombinant plasmids: insert the plasmid into a host cell.
what step is the following in making recombinant plasmids: let the host cell replicate many times, this produces clones. also this is one way to make a transgenic organism.
international effort to completely map and sequence the human genome. the ____ shows the locations of genes on chromosomes
human Genome project; linkage map
development of _____ the insertion of normal genes into human cells to correct genetic disorders. can be used to treat cystic fibrosis, sickle cell, hemophilia
treatment / gene therapy
unique banding pattern created when a sample of DNA is cut and separated
separates the segments by size. also used in _____ testing used in criminal _____, and used to identify _____ remains
Gel electrophoresis, paternity, forensics, fossilized
technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene
polymerase chain reaction ( PCR )