USYD SMP B1W1 Histology 1: Introduction to cells and tissues

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General histological organisation of cells and tissues found in the body

Histology

- Study of the bodies tissues
- How tissues are organized into organs

Pathology

- Study of abnormal of diseased tissue

Black and White slides are usually indicative of what type of imaging?

- Electron Microscopy

What are the tissue types?

GROUPED BY MORPHOLOGY
- Epithelial
- Connective

GROUPED BY FUNCTION
- Muscular
- Nervous

Describe Connective Tissue?

- Support tissue
- Morphologically diverse
- Ground substance
- Fibroblast
- Fibres

What are the different types of epithelial tissue?

layout:
- Simple
- Stratified

Cell shape:
- Squamous
- Cuboidal
- Columnar

What are the different types of connective tissue?

- Loose
- Dense

- Regular
- Irregular

Describe histology of muscle tissue

- Muscle cell = FIBRE
- elongated
- orientated
- arranged in bundles

What are the subcategories/subclassifcations of muscle tissue?

Neuron

Nerve cell

Parts of a Neuron?

- Dendrite
- Cell Body
- Axon

Neural Tissue - How do the peripheral and Central nervous system interact?

Axon may be central but the axon is in the periphery
- Ganglia is where synapses happen

What lines the respiratory epithelium?

cilia

Describe general properties of connective tissue?

- support tissue. also has metabolic functions
- We also add connective tissue even though they have a different histology (eg bones, cartilage)
- morphologically diverse
- ground substance
- Fibroblast
- Fibres

If you cant see many fibres, what kind of tissue are you looking at?

Loose connective tissue (more cells than fibres)

Connective Cells laid down in a parallel neat lines - what kind of tissue is this?

Regular connective tissue

Fascicles

Bundles of muscle cells

What are you looking at in a peripheral nerve?

1 m long axons, bundled together - connected via connective tissue.

What is the pathway of a signal through a neuron?

Dendrite through cell body and out through long axon

White matter is made from? (neurology)

mostly axons

Grey matter (neurology)

has cell bodies, axons and dendrites

Describe the plasma membrane and how proteins in the membrane work

- proteins can be receptors, channels, fats. Vary according to
- made of two layers of lipid
- weakest point is where the tails of each layer meet

cytoskeleton

- Internal framework of filaments and tubules
- for structural support, intracellular movement or organelles and metabolites
- contains microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments

what are microtubules?

- these exist in all cells except RBCs, mostly used for transport
- also used for cell shape
- exist in cilia to allow cilia to move.
- most interesting is that they help chromosome arrangement during telophase and metaphse during mitosis.

what are microtubules made from?

made of tublin, about 22nm diameter

What are microfilaments made from?

These are made of actin, in a helical array of 6nm of diameter

What part of the cell helps rearrange chromosomes during mitosis?

microtubules

What are microfilaments?

- they help microvilli move around
- also help with cytokinesis

Where can you find microvilli?

- The apical surface of some epithelial cells, such as the small intestinal enterocyte and the kidney proximal tubule.
- Microvilli also occur in sensory cells of the inner ear (as stereocilia), in the cells of taste buds, and in olfactory supporting cells.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum - describe function and histological appearance.

- Function of rER (rough ER) is protein synthesis
- it is a membrane WITHIN the cell. The black beads are ribosomes
- 'rough' refers to the appearance of rough due to ribosomes
- sheets of membrane are known as cisternae

- smooth endoplasmic reticulum functionality and histological features of sER?

- no ribosomes, but instead of smooth sheets of cisternae, they are more wavy
- glycogen are associated with smooth ER
- function: lipid & glycogen metabolism, isolates Ca2+, detox, membrane formation

Golgi apparatus - describe function and histological appearance

- Golgi sort and package proteins - secretes them too
- horse shoe shape cisternae with long flat cells...
- lots of round vesicles of different sizes and forms (these are secretory and have different proteins)..
- above the Golgi is the rER in this image

What secretes proteins for exocytosis?

Golgi apparatus

what are Lysosomes?

- The 'digestive' organelle of the cell
- they have a membrane containing heaps of enzymes to phagocytise unneeded proteins in the cytosol.
- they will engulf something within a cell eg a mitochondria that is dying, and then re use good bits, and leave bad bits in the cell, which appear as the ugly black dots

Mitochondria folds are known as?

Cristae

what is the Intermembrane space of mitochondria?

The mitochondria has an outer wall and an inner wall. the intermembrane space is the space between these two walls.

Matrix of mitochondria contains?

enzymes
Ca2+

Function of mitochondria

Generates ATP via
- oxidative phosphorylation
- citric acid cycle
- b oxidation of fatty acids
- initiates apoptosis via release of cytochrome c into cell cytoplasm

Draw up flow of ATP, ATP, H+ between intercellular walls, with changes in charge ?

- even within the cell, in the mitochondria, we have different gradients

Nucleus shape of lymphocyte vs neutrophil?

- Lymphocyte takes up majority of cell space, with a round shape
- nucleus has different lobes

Chromatin

DNA and other proteins that make up the contents of the nucleus

What are the two types of chromatin?

Heterochromatin
Euchromatin

Heterochromatin: Histological appearance?

- condensed
- inactive
- dark areas

Euchromatin: histological appearance?

- extended
- active
- pale areas

Nucleolus - function?

site of rRNA synthesis and ribosomal assembly

- List some cell loss disorders if homeostasis is unbalanced

- AIDS
- Alzheimers
- Parkinsons
- Aplastic anemia
- Myocardial Infarction

- List some cell accumulation disorders of homeostasis of division and death is not balanced?

- Cancer
- Lupus
- Glomerulonephritis
- Viral infections

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