← Overa's AP English Lang and Comp Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Abstraction a concept or idea without a specific example Abstract Noun ideas or things that can mean many things to many people (ie: peace, honor) Allegory A narrative or description with a secondary or symbolic meaning underlying hte literal meaning. Alliteration repetition of beginning sounds. Allusion a reerence to something in culture, history, or literature that expands the depth of the text if the reader makes the connection. Allusion, Classical A reference to classical myth, literature, or culture. Analogy compares two things that are similar in several respects in order to prove a point or clarify an idea. Analogical Comparison Another Way to say the author has used an analogy. Anecdote A short narrative of an amusing, unusual, revealing, or interesting event. Anticlimax an event or experience that causes disappointment because it is less exciting than what was expected. Antecedent That which comes before; the antecedent of a pronoun is the noun to which the pronoun refers. Antithesis The opposition of an idea used to emphasize a point; the juxtaposition of contrasting words or ideas. Hope is the antithesis of despair. Antithesis, balanced A figure of speech in which sharply contrasting ideas are juxtaposed in a balanced or parallel phrase or grammatical structure: "To err is human; to forgive, divine." Apostrophe A speaker directly addresses something or someone not living, that cannot answer back. Appeal to Authority One of several appeals strategies; in appealing to authority, the writer refers to expert opinion. Assertion The claim or point the author is making. Bias A preference or an inclination, especially one that inhibits impartial judgement. Burlesque A comic tool of satire, the writer uses ridiculous exaggeration and distortion. Cadence The rhythm of phrases or sentences created through repetitive elements. Candor Open and honest communication; truthfulness. Catalog A list of details that reinforces a concept. Inductive arguments build to a conclusion based on the collective impression of lists (facts, observations). Cause and Effect Essay pattern in which the writer shows the immediate and underlying causes that led to an event or situation. Circular Reasoning Type of faulty reasoning in which the writer attempts to support a statement by simply repeating the statement in different or stronger terms. Circumlocution To write around a subject; to write evasively; to say nothing. Colloquial Common or regional language or behavior; referring to local custom or sayings. Concrete versus Abstract Concrete is observable, measurable, easily perceived versus abstract which is vague and not easily defined. (ie: "chair" vs "patriot") Counterexample An exception to a proposed general rule. Damn with Faint Praise Accolades with words which effectively condemn by seeming to offer praise which is too moderate or marginal to be considered praise at all. Diatribe A rant or an explosion of harsh language that typically vilifies or condemns an idea. Diction, concrete The writer chooses language that is concrete, quantifiable, based on facts, easily accepted by the reader and generally understood. Digress To move off the point, to veer off onto tangents. Dilema Basically an either/or situation. Typically a moral decision. Dilema, False Simplifying a complex problem into an either/or dichotomy. Discretion Refined taste; tact or the ability to avoid embarrassment or distress. Double Entendre A phrase or saying that has two meanings, one generally being sexual and provocative in nature. Ellipses A mark or series of marks used in writing to indicate an omission, especially of letters or words. Empirical, Empiricism Knowledge based on experience or observation; the view that experience, especially of the senses, is the only source of knowledge. Episodic Appearing in episodes, a long string of short, individual scenes, stories, or sections, rather than focusing on the sustained development of a single plot. Epigram A short quotation or verse that precedes the text that sets a tone, provides a setting, or gives some other context for the text. Epithet 1) short poetic nickname; 2) a term used as a descriptive substitute for the name or title of a person; 3) an abusive or contemptuous word or phrase. Euphemism A kinder, gentler, less crude or harsh word or phrase to replace one that seems imprudent to use in a particular situation. Exemplar An example, especially one that is a model to emulate or particularly apt for the situation. Explicit Expressly stated; made obvious or evident; clear. Fact vs. Fiction Facts can be verified; fiction is supposed or imagined. Fallacy, Fallacious Claim An error of reasoning based on faulty use of evidence or incorrect inference. Figurative Language Language that is not meant to be taken literally; in general: metaphor; specifically: metaphor, simile, personification, metonymy, etc. Footnote An explanatory or documenting reference at the bottom of a page. Hyperbole An exaggeration or overstatement -- saying more than is warranted by the situation in order to expose reality by comparison; also, one of the main techniques in satire. Hypothetical Examples Examples based on supposition or uncertainty. Idealism The act or practice of envisioning things in an ideal form; seeing things as they could be or as you wish they were. Idiom, idiomatic A figure of speech; a manner of speaking that is natural to native speakers of a language. Imagery Language (descriptions) that evoke the senses. Imagery, concrete Imagery that relies on concrete language. For example: Describe the moon as full and orange instead of ominous, which can be interpreted in a variety of ways. Implicit Something that is implied Induction Reasoning by which a general statement is reached on the basis of particular examples. Inference An interpretation of the facts based on available details, drawing conclusions. Ironic Commentary The commentator or opinion writer does not mean what she writes. The writer's point is meant to be taken ironically. Juxtapose To place side by side in order to show similarities or differences. Maxim A saying or expression that proposes to teach or tell a truth. Metaphor A comparison of two unlike things in order to show one more clearly or in a new way. Metaphor, extended The metaphor extends throughout the work or passage, even forming the basis for the entire work. The key to identifying extended metaphor is length. Mock To make fun of, to treat with ridicule or derision. tool of satire. Also, a lesser, ignoble form of hero, epic, etc. A mock hero is all that a real hero is not. Musing Quiet reflection upon a topic, pondering. Naivete Innocence in perception, lack of worldly knowledge Negation A negative statement; a statement that is a refusal or denial of some other statement or a proposition that is true if and only if another proposition is false.