AP US History Chapter 36

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Harding

President in 1820

Ohio Gang

Harding's "advisors" who played poker, drank, and smoked with him in the White House, involved in numerous scandals

Charles Evan Hughes

Republican governor of NY and Secretary of State under Harding

Andrew Mellon

Secretary of Treasury under Harding, previously Pittsburgh aluminum king

Herbert Hoover

Secretary of Commerce under Harding, previously wartime food administrator; an energetic businessmen and engineer

Albert B. Fall

Senator of New Mexico, anticonservatist; Secretary of the Interior under Harding

Adkins v. Children's Hospital

Court ruled that women were now the legal equals of men and could no longer be protected by special legislation

Esch-Cummins Transportation Act of 1920

Act that encouraged private consolidation of the railroads and pledge the ICC to guarantee their profitability

Merchant Marine Act of 1920

Act authorizing the Shipping board, which controlled about fifteen hundred vessels, to dispose of the hastily built wartime fleet at bargain-basement prices

Railway Labor Board

Successor body to the wartime labor boards; ordered a wage cut of 12% in 1922, provoking a two-month strike

Daughtery

Attorney General in 1922; clamped on strikers one of the most sweeping injunctions in American history

Veterans' Bureau

Federal bureau created in 1921 to provide hospitals and services to disabled veterans

American Legion

Founded in 1919 by Colonel Theodore Roosevelt to renew old hardships and let off steam in good-natured horseplay; later known for militant patriotism, conservatism, and antiradicalism

Adjusted Compensation Act

Act giving each former soldier a paid-up insurance policy due in twenty years, adding $3.5 billion to the cost of WWI

Washington Conference

1921 Conference of major powers to reduce naval armaments among Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy, and the United States

Five-Power Naval Treaty

Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and the U.S. were bounded to preserve the status quo in the Pacific (Ignore Italy actually :[ ) February 1922

Nine-Power Treaty

Treaty in 1922 that was essentially a reinvention of the Open Door Policy; all members to allow equal and fair trading rights with China; nine total members; February 1922

Four-Power Treaty

Treaty between Britain, Japan, France and United States preserved the status quo in Pacific; December 1921

Kellogg

Coolidge's Secretary of State; Nobel Peace Prize winner for a pact made in 1929 (Last name only)

Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law

Law passed in 1922 where Congress raised the tariff from 27% to 38.5%

Forbes

Colonel who in 1923 resigned as head of the Veterans' Bureau after looting the government to about $200 million for veterans' hospitals (Last name only)

Teapot Dome scandal

Affair involving two naval oil reserves where the Secretary of the Interior transfered these valuable properties to the Interior Department

Elk Hills

The second naval oil reserve involved in the Teapot Dome Scandal located in California (the first naval oil reserve is in Teapot Dome, Wyoming)

Albert B. Fall

Secretary of the Interior under Harding

Denby

Secretary of the Navy under Harding

Sinclair and Doheny

Two oilmen involved in the Teapot Dome Scandal

Coolidge

Took over when Harding died in San Francisco of pneumonia and thrombosis on August 2, 1923

Capper-Volstead Act

Exempted farmers' marketing cooperatives from anti-trust prosecution

McNary-Haugen Bill

Bill that sought to keep agricultural prices high by having the government buy surpluses to sell abroad, vetoed twice by Coolidge

Coolidge

Republican presidential nominee in 1924 election

John W. Davis

Wealthy corporation lawyer and Democratic presidential nominee in 1924 election

La Follette

Socialist presidential nominee in 1924 election

Nicaragua

Coolidge removed troops from here in 1925 but sent them back a year later where they stayed until 1933

Mexico

American oil companies desired a military expedition here when the Mexican government tried to assert its sovereignty over oil resources

Ruhr Valley

France sent troops here in order to extort lagging reparations payments from Germany

480 million marks

The price of a loaf of bread in October 1923 in Germany; Toy has said this number how many times?

Dawes Plan

Rescheduling of German payments in 1924 for the cost of WWI and allowed for private loans to Germany; merry-go-round

Finland

"honest little ______"; love this country, it struggled along making payments until the last of its debt was erased in 1976

Alfred E. Smith

Four-time governor of New York and Democratic presidential nominee in 1928

Herbert Hoover

Stanford University graduate from Iowa and Oregon who became the Republican presidential nominee in 1928

planned economy

An economy in which government directs the use of national resources and regulates the economy to achieve both goals and stability.

Agricultural Marketing Act

This act lent money to farmers to help them organize producers' cooperatives

Federal Farm Board

Agency created by the Agricultural Marketing ct; it lent out money to farm organizations seeking to buy, sell, and store agricultural surpluses

Grain Stabilization/ Cotton Stabilization Corporation

Two corporations created to bolster sagging prices by buying up surpluses; suffocated by an avalanche of farm produce

Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930

Raised the tariff to 60% becoming the nation's highest protective tariff during peacetime

Black Tuesday

16.4 million shares of stocks were sold in a scramble on this day because speculators dumped their insecurities and others followed in group psychology. Hah. psychology.

Mississippi Valley

A drought here in 1930 forced thousand of farms into auctions

Hoover blankets

Another term for old newspapers in areas hit hard by depression

Hoovervilles

Shanty towns where the homeless and unemployed fought over garbage cans and cooked their findings in oil-drums

Hoover Dam

Huge construction project from 1931 to 1935 that provided much needed jobs to the southwest; built on Colorado River

Muscle Shoals Bill

Bill designed to dam the Tennessee River, vetoed by Hoover because he opposed the government's selling electricity in competition with private companies

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

Agency designed to provide indirect relief by assisting insurance companies, banks, agricultural organizations, railroads, and state and local governments

Pump-priming

Term for the spending of government funds in commercial enterprises to stimulate the national economy (Herbert Hoover)

Norris - La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act

Act passed in 1932 that outlawed contracts and forbade the federal courts to issue injunctions to restrain strikes, boycotts, and peaceful picketing

Bonus Expeditionary Force

Group of WWI veterans who demanded a premature payment of the deferred bonus voted by Congress in 1924, payable in 1945

Bonus Army

Another name for the Bonus Expeditionary Force

Douglas MacArthur

General who evicted the Bonus Expeditionary Force with tear gas and bayonets

Battle of Anaconda Flats

So-called battle between the Bonus Expeditionary Force and the army under MacArthur. I'm getting sleepy.

Manchuria

Japan's center of attacks in China; Japan overran the area and bolt shut the Open Door in this area

Geneva

Meeting place of the League in response to Japan's taking of Manchuria

Henry Stimson

Secretary of State under Hoover that said that the US wouldn't interfere with a League embargo

Stimson doctrine

Hoover's Secretary of State said the US would not recognize territorial changes resulting from Japan's invasion of Manchuria

Good Neighbor policy

Herbert Hoover created a policy in South America. What is this policy? :D

Haiti

Hoover negotiated with this republic in 1932 and provided for the complete withdrawal of American troops in 1934

Nicaragua

Hoover withdrew troops from this region in 1933. Hurrah

farm bloc

Bipartisan voting sector from the agricultural states; it sprouted up in Congress in 1921 and drove through laws such as the Capper-Volstead Act and the McNary-Haugen Bill. Yay Carly! I missed this term

5-5-3

The ratio of battleships and aircraft carriers in America, Britain, and japan

wheat belt

Areas of the U.S. Great Plains region where wheat farming is important; including the Dakotas, Nebraska and Kansas,

yanquis imperialism

The new U.S. expansion into Latin America through economic neocolonialism; termed by angry South Americans

Marian Anderson

First African-American to perform at the White House; the DAR refused her use of Constitution Hall for a concert, so Eleanor Roosevelt set her up to perform at the Lincoln Memorial.

Aretha Franklin

Famous singer and songwriter; known as Queen of Soul; she won 15 Grammy's and sang "America the Beautiful" at Obama's Inauguration in 2009

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