Intro to Surg Chapter 3

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Chapter 3 ~ Intro to Surg Enviro.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

establishes a means of prioritizing needs effective for basic understanding of individuals and for quick recognition of patient concerns

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

a model developed by Maslow that expresses human development and progression using developmental stages that prioritize needs

Patient

the person receiving medical treatment

Physical Need

any need or activity related to genetics, physiology, or anatomy

Psychological Need

any need or activity related to one's identification and understanding of oneself

Psychological Need

a mental requirement or necessity for fulfillment as a person

Social Need

any need or activity related to one's identification or interaction with another individual or group

Social Need

a need to fit into society and to be accepted by one's peers

Spiritual Need

any need or activity related to the identification and understanding of one's place in an organized universe (expressions may involve theology, philosphy, mythology, and intuition

Spiritual Need

a need for a connection with a higher order

Roy Adaptation model

views the patient as a biopsychosocial individual that is constantly interacting with the environment with the ability to adapt by using coping skills in dealing with internal and external stressors - interprets the environment as all conditions, circumstances, and influences that surround and affect the development and behavior of the person

Distress

type of stress that has negative implications

Eustress

term for the positive, desirable form of stress

Factors of Stress

- type and nature of the illness, trauma, or disease
- severity of the illness, trauma, or disease
- patient's previous experiences with illness, trauma, or disease
- age of patient
- evironmental differences
- family role
- economic factors
- religious beliefs

Common types of Coping Mechanisms

- Denial
- Rationalization
- Regression
- repression

Three Accepted definitions of Death

1) Cardiac
2) Higher brain death
3) Whole-brain death

Cardiac Death

irreversible loss of cardiac and respiratory function. The permanent loss of heartbeat and respiration

Higher Brain Death

irreversible l oss of higher brain function. Lower brain stem continues to provide respiration, blood pressure, and a heartbeat without the assistance of a respirator

Whole-Brain Death

irreversible loss of all functions of the entire brain. Flat EEG, unresponsiveness, lack of pupil relexes, and low body temp

Stages of Grief

1 - Denial
2 - Anger
3 - Bargaining
4 - Depression
5 - Acceptance

General Categories of Death

- accidental
- terminal
- prolonged (chronic)
- sudden

Palliative Procedures

intended to provide the patient with symptom relief, the avoidabce if symptoms, or relieft from conditions secondary to the progressive local disease

Life Support

refers to a set of therapies that preserve a patient's life when body systems are not functioning sufficiently to sustaing life

Euthanasia

"Good Death"

Two catergories of Euthanasia

1 - Passive
2 - Active

Passive Euthanasia

when the physician does nothing to preserve life

Active Euthanasia

requires actions that speed the process of dying.

Advance Directives

general term that refers to one of two legal documents used to speak for the patient in the event that they cannot make decisions for themselves.

Living Will

allows the patient to state in writing to endure to sustain life.

Power of Attorney

legal way to appoint a health care proxy who will make medical decisions for the patientin the event that he or she cannot do so

DNR/DNI

Do Not Resuscitate / Do Not Intubate

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